This minimizes the forces of repulsion between the

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Unformatted text preview: arranged as far apart as possible due to mutual repulsion. This minimizes the forces of repulsion between the electron pairs. The species therefore has minimum energy and maximum stability. SHAPES WITH ONLY BONDED ELECTRON PAIRS ON THE CENTRAL ATOM: #of Bonded e– Pairs 2 (and no lone e- pairs) 3 (and no lone e- pairs) 4 (and no lone e- pairs) 5 (and no lone e- pairs) 6 (and no lone e- pairs) Structure Linear Trigonal planar Regular Tetrahedral Trigonal bipyramidal Octahedral or square bipyramidal Angle 180o 120 o 109.5o 90o, 120 o, 180 o 90 o and 180 o Examples BeCl2, CO2, C2H2 BCl3, CO32–, NO3– CH4, BF4–, NH4+ PCl5 SF 6 SHAPES WITH 3 ELECTRON PAIRS (BONDED + LONE PAIRS) ON CENTRAL ATOM Number of bonded e– pairs 3 Number of lone e– pairs 0 2 1 Structure Angle Examples Trigonal planar Bent, V-Shaped, or angular 120o less than 120o (or ≈120o) BCl3, CO32–, NO3– O3, SO2, NO2– SHAPES WITH 4 ELECTRON PAIRS (BONDED + LONE PAIRS) ON CENTRAL ATOM Number of bonded e– pairs Number of lone e– pairs Structure Angle Examples 4 0 Regular Tetrahedral Regular Tetrahedral 109½o CH4, BF4–, NH4+ 3 1 2 ∠ ≈107o or less than 109o ∠ ≈105o or less than 109o NH3, PCl3, SO32– 2 Trigonal pyramidal Bent, V-shaped or Angular © IBID Press 2007 H2O 2 CHAPTER 4 BONDING (IB TOPICS 4 AND 14) SUMMARY SHAPES WITH 5 ELECTRON PAIRS (BONDED + LONE PAIRS)...
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