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E it is the redistribution of energy in different

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Unformatted text preview: electron distribution above and below the nuclei. Hybridization involves mixing of atomic orbitals to give new hybrid orbitals of equivalent energy, i.e., it is the redistribution of energy in different orbitals (in the valence shell) of an atom. © IBID Press 2007 3 CHAPTER 4 BONDING (IB TOPICS 4 AND 14) SUMMARY Type of Hybridization Examples Bonds Shape Angle sp3 (combination of: one s and three p orbtals) CH4 NH3 H2O 4 σ bonds 3 σ; 1 lone e− pair 2 σ; 2 lone e− pairs Tetrahedral Trigonal pyramidal Bent/angular/”V” = 109.5° <109.5° (≈107°) <109.5° (≈105°) sp2(combination of: one s and two p orbtals) C2H4 Each C has 3 σ; 1 π C=C has 1 σ; 1 π B has 3 σ bonds Each C has 3 σ; 1 π Planar 120° Planar 120° Planar 120° Linear 180° Linear 180° BCl3 C6H6 sp(combination of: one s and one p orbtal) C2H2 Each C has 2 σ; 2 π C≡C has 1 σ; 2 π Be has 2 σ bonds BeCl2 (N.B. Shading indicates Topic 14 (AHL) material.) © IBID Press 2007 4...
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