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Ch_06_summary

# Ch_06_summary - CHAPTER 6 KINETICS(IB TOPICS 6 AND 16...

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CHAPTER 6 KINETICS (IB TOPICS 6 AND 16) SUMMARY © IBID Press 2007 1 Reaction rate Rate of a reaction is the decrease in the concentration of a reactant or the increase of the concentration of a product with unit time. For a A b B, t B b t A a rate Δ Δ = Δ Δ = ] [ 1 ] [ 1 ; rate is a positive quantity. Rates can be determined by measuring the change in the concentration of a reactant or product with time. Possible methods are pressure measurements for gases using a manometer or pressure gauge, volume measurement for gases using a gas syringe, color changes using a colorimeter or spectrophotometer, heat changes using a thermometer, mass changes using a balance, pH changes using a pH meter, titrations, etc. Collision Theory The reactant particles must collide together. Particles must have the correct geometrical alignment. Particles must have a minimum energy of a E E , the activation energy. Activation energy is the minimum energy required for reactants to react in order to convert into products (via a transition state or activated complex). Transition state is an unstable arrangement in which the bonds are in the process of being broken and formed and presents the maximum point on a potential energy diagram; it can not be isolated. Factors that Influence Rates of Reactions Increase in concentration: Greater number of particles per unit volume per time means greater frequency of collisions and faster rate. Increase in temperature: This causes an increase in average kinetic energy; particles collide more frequently and more forcefully. Thus number of particles with a E E increases greatly and rate increases (more forceful collisions is a more important factor than more frequent collisions). Increasing the surface area of solids reactants: This increases the number of particles that can collide, i.e., increases the frequency of successful collisions.

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