chapter2 - Chapter 2 Looking at Computers: Understanding...

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CIS1000DE Chapter 2 Looking at Computers: Understanding the Parts
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CIS1000DE Chapter 1 Objectives Functions of a computer Data versus information Bits and bytes Input devices Output devices System unit Ergonomics
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CIS1000DE Computers Are Data Processing Devices Computer’s four major functions: 1. Gathers data (users input data) 2. Processes data into information 3. Outputs data or information 4. Stores data and information
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CIS1000DE 4 Data vs. Information Data: Representation of a fact or idea, Data can be a number, a word, a picture, or even a recording of sound. For example, the number 6125553297 and the names Derek and Washington are pieces of data. Information: Organized, meaningful data, When your computer provides you with a contact listing that indicates Derek Washington can be reached by phone at (612) 555-3297, the data mentioned earlier suddenly becomes useful that is, it is information.
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CIS1000DE 5 Bits and Bytes: The Language of Computers Bit: Binary digit, 0 or 1 Byte, Eight bits Each letter, number, and character = a string of eight 0s and 1s In order to process data into information, computers need to work in a language they understand. This language, called binary language , consists of just two digits: 0 and 1. Everything a computer does is broken down into a series of 0s and 1s. Each 0 and 1 is a binary digit , or bit for short. Eight binary digits (or bits) combine to create 1 byte . In computers, each letter of the alphabet, each number, and each special character (such as the @ sign) consists of a unique combination of 8 bits, or a string of eight 0s and 1s. As it turns out, if 8 bits are put together there are 256 possible combinations that they can be in. That number of combinations allows for a code that can include all the uppercase and lowercase letters of the alphabet, all 10 digits, punctuation marks, and many other much-used symbols. We call these 8 bits working together a byte. Bytes are the basic measurement for storage in a computer.
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CIS1000DE 6 How Much Is a Byte? Not only are bits and bytes used as the language that tells the computer what to do, they are also what the computer uses to represent the data and information it inputs and outputs. Kilobytes, megabytes, and gigabytes are therefore simply amounts of bytes.
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CIS1000DE 7 Computer Software Software: Programs that enable hardware to perform different tasks Application software System software Application software is the set of programs you use on a computer to help you carry out tasks. If you’ve ever typed a document, created a spreadsheet, or edited a digital photo, for example, you’ve used a form of application software. System software
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This note was uploaded on 09/23/2010 for the course CS 001 taught by Professor Jix during the Spring '10 term at Riverside Community College.

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chapter2 - Chapter 2 Looking at Computers: Understanding...

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