chapter9 - Chapter 9 Behind the Scenes A Closer Look at...

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CIS1000DE Chapter 9 Behind the Scenes: A Closer Look at System Hardware
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CIS1000DE Chapter Topics Computer switches Binary number system Inside the CPU Cache memory Types of RAM Computer buses Creating faster CPUs
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CIS1000DE Binary Language Computers work in binary language Consists of two numbers: 0 and 1 Everything a computer does is broken down into a series of 0s and 1s Switches: Devices inside the computer that can be flipped between these two states: 1 or 0, on or off To process data into information, computers need to work in binary language , which consists of two numbers: 0 and 1. Everything a computer does is broken down into a series of 0s and 1s. Because modern computers are electronic, digital machines, they understand only two states of existence: on and off. Computers represent these two possibilities, or states, using the digits1 and 0. Electronic switches are devices inside the computer that can be flipped between these two states: 1 or 0, on or off.
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CIS1000DE Switches Nonmechanical devices in computers that open and close circuits Types of electrical switches: Vacuum tubes Transistors: Semiconductors Integrated circuits Vacuum Tube Transistors Integrated Circuits
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CIS1000DE Early computers used devices called vacuum tubes as switches. Vacuum tubes act as computer switches by allowing or blocking the flow of electrical current. The problem with vacuum tubes is that they take up a lot of space and they produce a lot of heat. Thus, vacuum tubes make for impractical switching devices in personal computers. Since the vacuum tubes, two major revolutions have occurred in the design of switches, and consequently computers, to make them smaller and faster: the invention of the transistor and the fabrication of integrated circuits . Transistors are electrical switches built out of layers of a special type material called a semiconductor . A semiconductor is any material that can be controlled to either conduct electricity or act as an insulator. Silicon, which is found in common sand, is the semiconductor material used to make transistors. I ntegrated circuits (or chips) are very small regions of semiconductor material that support a huge number of transistors. Along with all the many transistors, other components critical to a circuit board (such as resistors, capacitors, and diodes) are also located on the integrated circuit. Most integrated circuits are no more than a quarter inch in size. Integrated circuits have enabled computer designers to create small yet powerful microprocessors , which are chips that contain a CPU.
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CIS1000DE The on/off state of a switch represents one bit of data Bit (binary digit) On = 1 Off = 0 OFF 0 Switches Representing Data ON 1 0 1 OR = 1 bit To manipulate the on/off switches, the computer works in binary language, which uses only two digits, 1 and 0. On is 1 and off is 0. Thus, electricity becomes numbers
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CIS1000DE The Binary Number System Describes a number as powers of 2
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This note was uploaded on 09/23/2010 for the course CS 001 taught by Professor Jix during the Spring '10 term at Riverside Community College.

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chapter9 - Chapter 9 Behind the Scenes A Closer Look at...

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