final exam - Endocrine system as a regulatory system....

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Endocrine system as a regulatory system. Hormones action on target site-distant w/ transport in blood, paracrine, autocrine, and neurocrine. Classification of hormones based on structure and action- peptides/proteins, neuropeptides, amines and steroid hormones, phermones. Endocrine pancreas – insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin. Insulin role in absorptive state. Glucagon role in post-absorptive state Somatostatin role in limiting swings in blood glucose when a large meal is consumed. Regulation of Ca and phosphate balance through Vitamin D (calcitriol) Parathyroid hormone (PTH) Physiology of bone remodeling Action and regulation of growth hormone. thyroid hormone. Adrenal cortex and steroid hormones Endocrinology- regulation and homeostasis through the actions of hormones. Hormone- peptides, steroids, and amines. Secreted by ductless glands. Hormone act locally or are carried by the vascular system to other tissues of the body.
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Neurocrines- neurotransmitters having an endocrine action. Neurotransmitters released into the circulatory system and have a systemic effect. Nervous system: rapid action- msec to sec. Localized specific site of action Communicates using NT among neurons and effector tissues. NTs act as locally over very short distances. Endocrine system: slow action- secs, mins, hours, days Generalized action on metabolism, growth and dev, and regulation of body water. Communicates through neurosecretions and hormones that can act locally, act on adjacent cells and tissues, or at tissues distant from the site of secretions. Autocrine effect- acts back on the cells or tissues synthesized and secreting hormone. Paracrine effect- acts on adjacent cells or tissues. Distal effect- secretions act carried by the vascular system to tissues distant form the site of hormone/ neurocrine release. Integration of neural and endocrine regulations occurs b/t the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary gland. Classes of neurosecretions and hormones Peptides and small proteins neurosecretions, hormones of the anterior and posterior pituitary glands, hormones of the pancreas and parafollicular cells of the thyroid gland.
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Amines synthesis from the a.a. tyrosine. Thyroid hormones synthesized and secreted form the thyroid gland, and epinephrine and Norepinephrine from the Adrenal Medulla. Steroid hormones hormones synthesized from cholesterol. Vitamin D – Calcitriol Hormones from the adrenal cortex Cortisol- regulation blood glucose Aldosterone- water balance through regulation renal Na reabsorption and secretion. Progesterone, Estrogens, and testosterone- sex steriods
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final exam - Endocrine system as a regulatory system....

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