Chptr_06 - Sensation and Perception Chapter 6 Chapter 6:...

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Sensation and Perception – Chapter 6 183 PSYCHOLOGY: Exploring Behavior Chapter 6: Sensation and Perception Sensation and Perception Sensation versus Perception Psychophysics and Thresholds Vision USING PSYCHOLOGY: Color Visual receptor: The Eye Operation of the Eye Eye Problem: Color Blindness Hearing Operation of the Ear Ear Problem: Deafness Chemical senses—Smell and Taste Chemical Senses Receptors: The Nose and Taste Buds Operation of the Chemical Senses Other senses: Skin Other Senses: Balance and Body Position Perception Figure-ground Perception The Wholeness of Figure Perception Perceptual Grouping Perception and Attention Stimulus Variation and Perception Perceptual Constancies Visual Perception of Distance Visual Perception of Motion Hearing Perception Illusions as "Errors" in Perception USING PSYCHOLOGY: Clothing Extrasensory perception (ESP) REVIEW QUESTIONS ACTIVITIES INTERESTED IN MORE? Sensation and Perception WHAT'S THE ANSWER? Instructors in Driver Education advise their students to look twice in both directions before driving across an intersection. Why? "Watch it, Klausman! Watch where you're going!. . . Well, would you look at that. He ran into the goal post!"
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Sensation and Perception – Chapter 6 184 PSYCHOLOGY: Exploring Behavior Moments later, "Klausman, how many times have I told you? You've got to look where you're going! What if that had been a defensive player from the opposing team? How do you feel?" "I feel OK, coach, but I've got a bad ringing in my ears." What causes the ringing in your ears that you may hear after bumping your head? How can ice skaters in a dancing routine make high-speed spinning turns without getting so dizzy that they lose their balance? Some experimenters have reported frequent successes in transmitting images and thoughts between widely separated individuals. Does extrasensory perception exist? Sensation and perception identify processes that differ primarily in their complexity. We have a greater number of senses than is widely believed. Psychophysics is the study of the relationship between physical events and our experience of those events. The absolute threshold is the smallest stimulus that arouses a sensation. The difference threshold is the smallest change in any stimulation that can be detected. The stimulus for vision is light, which has three physical characteristics: wavelength, intensity, and pureness. The psychological attributes are hue, brightness, and saturation. Complementary colors, as well as other colors, may be mixed in an additive or subtractive process. The receptor for vision is the eye, which contains rods for black-white vision and cones for color vision. Vision is poorest at the blind spot and best at the fovea. Dark adaptation and the Purkinje Shift both result from the shift from cone- to rod-vision. Color blindness affects mainly males, but it is a relatively slight vision problem compared to blindness. The physical stimulus for hearing is pressure waves, which
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Chptr_06 - Sensation and Perception Chapter 6 Chapter 6:...

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