Chptr_07 - LEARNING Chapter 7 Chapter 7 Learning Learning...

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LEARNING - Chapter 7 227 PSYCHOLOGY: Exploring Behavior Chapter 7: Learning Learning Defining Learning Elements of learning Reinforcement Classical Conditioning Reinforcement in Classical Conditioning USING PSYCHOLOGY: Breaking Bad Habits Operant (Instrumental) Conditioning: A Predecessor Operant Conditioning: The Process and Equipment Reinforcement and Punishment in Operant Conditioning USING PSYCHOLOGY: Breaking Bad Operants Classical Versus Operant Conditioning Observational Learning Schedules of Reinforcement and Learning Primary and secondary reinforcement Timing of Reinforcements Extinction Generalization Discrimination Punishment Factors which Influence Punishment Punishment: Cues and Alternatives REVIEW QUESTIONS ACTIVITIES INTERESTED IN MORE? Learning WHAT'S THE ANSWER? "I was in fourth grade the first time I met up with that 1- inch rope dangling from the rafters of the school gym. The PE teacher shinnied right to the top and then shouted to me to grab the rope and climb it. I tried my best, but I barely got my feet off the floor. The next time I saw such a rope I was in 11th grade, and now the PE teacher was called 'Coach.' I was afraid I wouldn't be able to climb any better than I had in fourth grade. Imagine how surprised I was when I reached the rafters!" How do you explain this? Do animals learn the same way humans do?
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LEARNING - Chapter 7 228 PSYCHOLOGY: Exploring Behavior "My sister used to have a cute trick she pulled on my father all the time when she was about two years old. When he held her in his arms, she used to suck in a little breath and then blow just a small puff of air into the side of his eye. She always laughed when she saw him blink. A couple of days ago I made a bet with her that it wouldn't happen again. So, she cuddled up next to my father, and then she drew in some air and pretended she was going to blow air at him, and you know what? He blinked! My sister's 15 years old now, and she hasn't done that in a dozen years, I'll bet. He blinked!" What happened here? "I've been working here at the Resorts National for nineteen years cleaning these ashtrays, sweeping this carpet, and fetching cigarettes for the customers. Some people think I'm in a rut, but I like what I do, and I enjoy seein' other people spend their money. You know who's in a rut? You see that old man in the tan slacks over there playing the slot machine? He comes in here at least once a month with a bag of coins and he keeps putting them into that machine until he runs out. He's been doing it for years . . . long as I can remember. It used to be nickels, but now it's quarters. He's the one's in a rut." How do you explain this gambler's behavior? Learning is defined as a relatively permanent change in a behavioral tendency that occurs as a result of practice or observation. Learning cannot be directly observed.
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