Chptr_09 - Language and Communication - Chapter 9 Chapter...

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Language and Communication - Chapter 9 296 PSYCHOLOGY: Exploring Behavior Chapter 9: Language and Communication Language and Communication Language How is Language Organized? What is language? The Essence of Language Processing Language Sound Syntax Semantics Physiological Requirements for a (Spoken) Language Intellectual Requirement for a (Spoken) Language Communication Communication as a Process When Animals Communicate When Animals Communicate with Humans When Humans Communicate Nonverbal Communication USING PSYCHOLOGY: "Talking" Through Body Language REVIEW ACTIVITIES INTERESTED IN MORE? Language and Communication WHAT'S THE ANSWER? "Ahm gowa gega ped dawp." We started the Psychology: Its Nature and Nurture Chapter with that quote. Is it language? What does it mean? Do animals have a language? Can they communicate with each other? "What're you going to do, Steve? Teresa was the perfect date, but now she's sick. It's only two days 'til the dance. Everybody I know has already got a date," says Jeff to his best friend and fellow senior. "Well, it's not hopeless yet. Let's go out and 'read the halls,'" replies Steve. Having said it, Steve then moves out to the front entry hall of the Student Center. Classes are out, and many of Steve's and Jeff's friends are heading into the Center. Steve seems to know everybody and goes out of his way
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Language and Communication - Chapter 9 297 PSYCHOLOGY: Exploring Behavior to greet every female who passes. Nobody does more than return the greeting, or pause just a moment for conversation. As the crowd thins out, Steve turns to Jeff and says, "That was a big help. My guess is that Jessie doesn't have a date. I think I'll give her a call tonight." "How could you tell? You barely spoke to her!" is Jeff's stunned reply. How does Steve know? One of the major questions about language is how we store information used in speaking and understanding. Two hypotheses have been proposed: reappearance and utilization. A central problem is to explain how we can understand sentences we have never heard before. Language is an abstract system of symbols and meanings. Whereas performance is an account of what we actually do, competence refers to our language potential. All languages have four features in common: meaningful terms; arbitrary assignment of symbols to concepts; openness, or productivity; and a sound-meaning link. In processing language, speakers must share agreement on sound, rules of organization, and meaning. Four capacities are necessary for language to develop as a means of communication: brain capabilities, a speech mechanism, abstract reasoning ability, and also, it seems, an inherited urge to use these capacities. Communication is the passing of information from one organism to another using signals. Communication involves at least four elements: transmitter, signal, channel, and receiver. The "language" of bees is communication, but its elements are of
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This note was uploaded on 09/24/2010 for the course PSYCH 1300 taught by Professor Kasschau during the Spring '09 term at University of Houston.

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Chptr_09 - Language and Communication - Chapter 9 Chapter...

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