ism notes midterm copy(1).pdf - \/~hbidgoli Acceptable use policy Access control Accountability Accuracy of information Adapter card Adware Allocation An

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Unformatted text preview: /~hbidgoli Acceptable use policy Access control Accountability Accuracy of information Adapter card Adware Allocation An intranet An XML tag represents the kind of content being posted and transmitted. Application software Arithmetic logic unit Artificial intelligence Assembly language Asymmetric encryption Attenuation Automated payroll Availability Backdoors Baiting Bandwidth Big data Biometric security measures Blended threat broadband Bus Bus topology Business analytics Business continuity plan Business intelligence Byte cacheRAM Call-back modem Central processing unit Centralized processing Centralized routing In the URL, hbidgoli/books.html, _____ represents the name of the directory in which files are stored is a set of rules specifying the legal and ethical use of a system and the consequences of noncompliance. are designed to protect systems from unauthorized access in order to preserve data integrity. In the context of Web and network privacy, _____ refers to issues involving both the user's and the organization's responsibilities and liabilities. Which of the following is a serious problem with wikis? Computers in a local area network (LAN) are usually connected to the network via a(n) _____, which is a hardware component. is a form of spyware that collects information about the user (without the user’s consent) to determine which advertisements to display in the user’s Web browser. approach to a distributed DBMS combines fragmentation and replication, with each site storing the data it uses most often. Housed at server farms, search engines use _____ to index data coming in from crawlers Which of the following statements is true of Extensible Markup Language (XML)? can be commercial software or software developed in house and is used to perform a variety of tasks on a personal computer. (ALU) performs arithmetic operations (+, ​−​, *, /) as well as comparison or relational operations (<,>, 5); the latter are used to compare numbers. Future progress in _____ includes further development in natural language processing that should make information systems easier to use the second generation of computer languages, is a higher-level language than machine language but is also machine dependent. It uses a series of short codes, or mnemonics, to represent data or instructions. uses two keys: a public key known to everyone and a private or secret key known only to the recipient. A message encrypted with a public key can be decrypted only with the same algorithm used by the public key and requires the recipient’s private key, too. Anyone intercepting the message cannot decrypt it because he or she does not have the private key. is the loss of power in a signal as it travels from the sending device to the receiving device. _____ is an example of transaction-processing system. In the context of computer and network security, _____ means that computers and networks are operating and authorized users can access the information they need. Which of the following is considered an intentional security threat? is a programming routine built into a system by its designer or programmer. It enables the designer or programmer to bypass system security and sneak back into the system later to access programs or files. is in similar to phishing attacks. What distinguishes it from phishing is the promise that the baiter gives to the recipient. The amount of data that can be transferred from one point to another in one second is called _____. is data so voluminous that conventional computing methods are not able to efficiently process and manage it. _____ use a physiological element to enhance security measures. use a physiological element that is unique to a person and cannot be stolen, lost, copied, or passed on to others. is a security threat that combines the characteristics of computer viruses, worms, and other malicious codes with vulnerabilities found on public and private networks. In _____ data transmission, multiple pieces of data are sent simultaneously to increase the transmission rate is a link between devices connected to the computer. It can be parallel or serial, internal (local) or external. connects nodes along a network segment, but the ends of the cable are not connected, as they are in a ring topology. uses data and statistical methods to gain insight into the data and provide decision makers with information they can act on. outlines procedures for keeping an organization operational in the event of a natural disaster or network attack. provides historical, current, and predictive views of business operations and environments and gives organizations a competitive advantage in the marketplace. A _____ is the size of a character. resides on the processor. Because memory access from main RAM storage takes several clock cycles (a few nanoseconds), cache RAM stores recently accessed memory so the processor is not waiting for the memory transfer. verifies whether a user’s access is valid by logging the user off (after he or she attempts to connect to the network) and then calling the user back at a predetermined number. Is the heart of a computer? It is divided into two components: the arithmetic logic unit (ALU) and the control unit. all processing is done at one central computer. In centralized routing, one node is in charge of selecting the path for all packets. This node, considered the network routing manager, stores the routing table, and any changes to a route must be made at this node. Ciphertext Client/server model Cloud Code division multiple access Communication media Computer fraud Computer literacy Conducted media Confidentiality Control unit Controller Convergence Convergence Cookies Cookies Copyright laws Crawlers create, read, update, and delete (CRUD) Customer relationship management Cybersquatting Data Data communication Data dictionary Data dictionary Data driven website Data encryption Data hierarchy data mart Data mining tools Data warehouse Data-mining analysis Database Database administrator Database administrator Database management system Database marketing Decentralized processing Denial-of-service Despite being smaller, data marts can usually perform the same type of analysis as data warehouses. Digital divide Digital subscriber line Directories Disaster recovery Which of the following forms of text used in an encryption algorithm is unreadable without a decryption key? In the client/server model, software runs on the local computer (the client) and communicates with the remote server to request information or services. A server is a remote computer on the network that provides information or services in response to client requests. _____ storage, which is used for online storage and backup, involves multiple virtual servers that are usually hosted by third parties. To improve the efficiency and quality of digital communications, Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) transmits multiple encoded messages over a wide frequency and then decodes them at the receiving end. or channels, connect sender and receiver devices. They can be conducted or radiated. is the unauthorized use of computer data for personal gain. Is skill in using productivity software as well as having a basic knowledge of hardware and software, the internet, and technologies. provide a physical path along which signals are transmitted, including twisted pair copper cable, coaxial cable, and fiber optics. In the context of computer and network security, _____ means that a system must not allow the disclosing of information by anyone who is not authorized to access tells the computer what to do, such as instructing the computer which device to read or send output to. is a hardware and software device that controls data transfer from a computer to a peripheral device (examples are a monitor, a printer, or a keyboard) and vice versa. In data communication, _____ refers to integrating voice, video, and data so that multimedia information can be used for decision making. refers to integrating voice, video, and data so that multimedia information can be used for decision making. Which of the following is a commonly used technology for data collection? are small text files with unique ID tags that are embedded in a Web browser and saved on the user’s hard drive. Generally, _____ protect tangible material, such as books and drawings. _____ check to see what links are on a user's page and make sure they work; if a link is broken, they identify it and include this information as part of the data about that page. refers to the range of functions that data administrators determine who has permission to perform certain functions. A successful _____ program helps improve client service and create a long-term relationship between an organization and its clients. _____ is registering, selling, or using a domain name to profit from someone else's trademark. Consist of raw facts and is a component of an information system. is the electronic transfer of data from one location to another. The data dictionary stores definitions, such as data types for fields, default values, and validation rules for data in each field. A _____ stores definitions, such as data types for fields, default values, and validation rules for data in each field. Acts as an interface to a database, retrieving data for users and allowing users to enter data in the database. transforms data, called plaintext or clear text, into a scrambled form called cipher text that cannot be read by others. is the structure and organization of data, which involves fields, records, and files. A _____ is usually a smaller version of a data warehouse, used by a single department or function Business analytics uses _____ to support decision-making activities. A _____ is a collection of data from a variety of sources used to support decision-making applications and generate business intelligence. Is used to discover patterns and relationships. A collection of all relevant data organized in a series of integrated files. Within the context of the various categories of IT jobs, a _____ must have knowledge and understanding of data warehouse and data-mining tools. found in large organizations, design and set up databases, establish security measures, develop recovery procedures, evaluate database performance, and add and fine-tune database functions. Microsoft Access is an example of _____ in an information system. Rivalry among existing competitors is high when many competitors occupy the same marketplace position. uses an organization’s database of customers and potential customers to promote products or services. each user, department, or division has its own computer for performing processing tasks. A _____ attack floods a network or server with service requests to prevent legitimate users' access to the system. Which of the following statements is true of data marts and data warehouses? Information technology and the Internet have created a digital divide. Computers still are not affordable for many people. The digital divide has implications for education a common carrier service, is a high-speed service that uses ordinary phone lines. are indexes of information based on keywords embedded in documents, which make it possible for search engines to find what you are looking for. A _____ plan lists the tasks that must be performed to restore damaged data and equipment. Discussion groups Discussion groups Disk Drive Distributed database management system (DDBMS) Distributed processing Domain name systems (DNS) Domain names E-collaboration Encapsulation Enterprise resource planning systems Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) Extraction, transformation, and loading (ETL) Extranet False False False False False False False False False Fault-tolerant system Fiber-optic Fiber-optic Fifth generation languages Firewall Five force models Focus Foreign key Fourth generation languages Fragmentation Gigapop Green computing Hierarchical model High-level Hypermedia ____ are usually formed for people to exchange opinions and ideas on a specific topic, usually of a technical or scholarly nature. are usually for exchanging opinions and ideas on a specific topic, usually of a technical or scholarly nature. Group members post messages or articles that others in the group can read. A _____ is a peripheral device for recording, storing, and retrieving information. Stores data on multiple servers throughout an organization maintains centralized control and decentralized operations. Processing power is distributed among several locations. When information is transferred from one network to another, domain names are converted to IP addresses by the Domain Name System (DNS) protocol. Servers using this protocol (called DNS servers) maintain lists of computers’ and Web sites’ addresses and their associated IP addresses. _____ are unique identifiers of computer or network addresses on the Internet. Which of the following is an important application of data communication systems for managers to consult decision makers located throughout the world? refers to the grouping into a class of various objects along with their attributes and methods—meaning, grouping related items into a single unit. This helps handle more complex types of data, such as images and graphs. Which of the following data sources provides the input a data warehouse needs to perform analyses and generate reports? The Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA2) uses _____ to obtain a master key, which is in turn used to negotiate for a key that will be used for a session Refers to the processes used in a data warehouse. It includes extracting data from outside sources, transforming it to fit operational needs, and loading it into the end target (database or data warehouse). is a secure network that uses the Internet and Web technologies to connect intranets of business partners so communication between organizations or between consumers is possible. Skill in using word processing software is an example of information literacy. An object code must be translated into source code in order for a computer to be able to read and execute. A computer with a 32-bit processor can perform calculations with larger numbers and be more efficient with smaller numbers than a 64-bit system. Information technology has eliminated more types of jobs than it has created. Log files are small text files with unique ID tags that are embedded in a Web browser and saved on the user's hard drive. After examining an incoming packet, a firewall cannot reject that packet. Data communication systems are significantly apart from an organization's core functions. Radiated media use a fiber-optic cable for transmitting data through air or water. The Internet is owned or run by the Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET). ensure availability in the event of a system failure by using a combination of hardware and software. _____ cables have the highest bandwidth of any communication medium _____ cables are glass tubes surrounded by concentric layers of glass, called cladding, to form a light path through wire cables. use some of the artificial intelligence technologies, such as knowledge-based systems, natural language processing (NLP), visual programming, and a graphical approach to programming. These languages are designed to facilitate natural conversations between you and the computer. is a combination of hardware and software that acts as a filter or barrier between a private network and external computers or networks, including the Internet. A network administrator defines rules for access, and all other data transmissions are blocked. Michael Porter’s Five Forces Model analyzes an organization, its position in the marketplace, and how information systems could be used to make it more competitive. The five forces include buyer power, supplier power, threat of substitute products or services, threat of new entrants, and rivalry among existing competitors. _____ is one of the strategies of Michael Porter's three strategies for successfully competing in the marketplace. Is a field in a relational table that matches the primary key column of another table. It can be used to cross-reference tables. use macro codes that can take the place of several lines of programming. The commands are powerful and easy to learn, even for people with little computer training. Approach to a distributed DBMS addresses how tables are divided among multiple locations. There are three variations: horizontal, vertical, and mixed. is a local connection point-of-presence that connects a variety of high-performance networks, and its main function is the exchange of I2 traffic with a specified bandwidth. _____ involves the design, manufacture, use, and disposal of computers and servers in such a way that there is minimal impact on the environment. The relationships between records form a treelike structure (hierarchy). Records are called nodes, and relationships between records are called branches. The node at the top is called the root, and every other node (called a child) has a parent. Nodes with the same parents are called twins or siblings. Java and C++ are _____ languages. documents include embedded references to audio, text, images, video, and other documents. Hypermedia Hypertext Hypertext Hypertext markup language Illegal and unethical Information Information literacy Information technologies Inheritance Input devices Integrity Integrity rules Intellectual property Internet Internet of me Internet2 Intranet Intrusion detection systems IP addresses It is a result of exponential growth of data in both public and private organizations. It is less secure than an intranet It is nonvolatile memory It reduces employee turnover It stores data sequentially Kernel Keystroke loggers Labor Statistics Lack of necessary supplies or equipment Legal but unethical Local area network (LAN) Log files Logic bomb Logical structure Machine language Magnetic disk Magnetic tape Main memory Management information systems Manpower, machinery, materials, and money Manufacturing information system Metadata Mobile and wireless technology Mobile network The Web organizes information by using _____, meaning documents that include embedded references to audio, text, images, video, or other documents The embedded references in hypermedia documents are called hypertext; they consist of links users can click to follow a particular thread (topic). _____ is an approach to data management, in which data is stored in a network of nodes connected by links. is the language used to create Web pages. It defines a page’s layout and appearance by using tags and attributes. A tag delineates a section of the page, such as the header or body; an attribute specifies a value, such as a font color, for a page component. Jared makes two copies of an antivirus software package he just bought and gives one of the copies to Joshua. In this scenario, Jared's actions are considered _____. consists of facts that have been analyzed by the process component and is an output of an information system. ___ is understanding the role of information in generating and using business intelligence. support information systems and use the Internet, computer networks, database systems, point of sale (POS) systems, and radio-frequency-identification (RFID) tags. Refers to new objects being created faster and more easily by entering new data in attributes. send data and information to the computer. Examples include a keyboard and mouse. refers to the accuracy of information resources within an organization. The _____ of a data model defines the boundaries of a database, such as maximum and minimum values allowed for a field. is a legal umbrella covering protections that involve copyrights, trademarks, trade secrets, and patents for “creations of the mind” developed by people or businesses. is a worldwide collection of millions of computers and networks of all sizes. It is ...
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