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Lecture%201-Basic%20ConceptsforBbSlides - BIO 361 Human...

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BIO 361 Human Infectious Disease
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Human Infectious Diseases Human Infectious Diseases Office Hours will be in: NMS 3.306 Laboratory Location: NMS 3.236 Email: [email protected] David K. Giles, Ph.D Section of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology
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Basic Concepts What happened to the “miracle drug”? We had concluded that bacterial infections and other key infectious organisms were no longer a threat and our attention was turned to other health issues such as cancer, heart disease, and key viral infections (e. g. HIV). In the late 80s we began to notice an increase in bacterial infections and by 1995, infectious diseases became one of the top five causes of death in the United States WHY? Aging population Modern medicine—increases in immuno-compromised patients
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….we are running out of effective antibiotics
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Basic Concepts Are we in trouble? Emerging and Reemerging infectious diseases! What happened? Ability of microorganisms to efficiently and quickly change their genetic makeup to take advantage of new opportunities to infect Impact of changing human practices Who ʼ s winning? Them, us, or is it a standoff
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Reproduced from Bacterial Pathogenesis, A molecular approach 2 nd ed., Salyers and Whitt. 2002 Basic Concepts: Emerging and Reemerging Infectious Diseases
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Reproduced from Bacterial Pathogenesis, A molecular approach; 2 nd ed., Salyers and whitt. 2002 Factors leading to the entry of B. burgdorferi into the human population. Example: Lyme Disease New-new bacterial disease Basic Concepts: Emerging and Reemerging Infectious Diseases
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Food-borne disease caused by Campylobacter species Advances in detection has revealed that Campylobacter is major cause of food-borne illness New-old bacterial disease Basic Concepts: Emerging and Reemerging Infectious Diseases Example: Tuberculosis in North America How did this disease come back? Multidrug resistant? Old-new bacterial disease Example: Sexually transmitted bacterial diseases Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae Considered emerging/reemerging because of slow response of medical community Old-old bacterial disease
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New construction Destruction of rainforests Encroachment on wildlife habitats Basic Concepts: Emerging and Reemerging Infectious Diseases Dense population w/ poor sanitation = Easy transmission of disease Uncontrolled urbanization Ships carry disease-causing ʻ cargo ʼ Air transportation = across the world in 16 hours Modern transport What has led to the emergence and spread of new disease? Changes in agriculture New crops = New pests Pollution of environment Global warming Oil spills
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History of Infectious Disease In ancient times, disease and epidemics were considered divine punishment In 1546, the Italian physician Girolamo Fracastoro (Fracastorius) proposed that epidemic disease was caused by transferable tiny particles or “spores.” In 1674, the Dutch biologist Anton van Leeuwenhoek was the first to observe and describe single cell organisms (he called animalcules )
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