Lecture%202-Basic%20Concepts%20%28Immune%20system%29Slides

Lecture%202-Basic%20Concepts%20%28Immune%20system%29Slides...

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Human Infectious Diseases Human Infectious Diseases Laboratory Location: NMS 3.236 Email: [email protected] Basic Concepts: Host Immunity
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Overview of Immunity Principal biologic role of the immune system is to protect us from microbial infection. Immunity, derived from Latin word immunis (“exempt”) Relatively new field of study—just over 100 years. Organs and tissues of the immune system Blood Lymphatic system Primary lymphoid tissue (bone marrow, thymus) Secondary lymphoid (spleen, mucosa- associated lymphoid tissue) From Medical Microbiology, 5 th ed. Murray, Rosenthal, and Pfaller. 2005
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Elements of Host Protective Responses Compromised Barriers (e.g. skin) Quick host response (Innate responses e.g. phagocytosis, complement) Directed Attack (Adaptive response, e.g. T-cells) Microbial Attack Sound the Alarm (complement, chemokines)
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Definitions Nonspecific and Specific defenses Innate Immunity: First line of defense (+) Always on (+) Rapid response (+) No need for previous exposure (nonspecific) (-) Can be overwhelmed (-) Lacks memory
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Aquired Immunity: Second line of defense (-) Not “on” until exposed to foreign invader (specific) (-) Slow response—can take days to weeks to rise to full strength (+) Intense response (+) Protects better on second exposure Nonspecific and Specific Defense Systems are connected The “Dark Side” of the immune system Septic Shock Allergy or hypersensitivity; autoimmune disease Nonspecific and Specific defenses
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Innate Immunity (nonspecific)
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Important features of epithelia: Tight junctions Basal lamina Basolateral and apical surfaces Goblet cells Mucus Reproduced from Bacterial Pathogenesis, A molecular approach 2 nd ed., Salyers and Whitt. 2002 Innate Immunity-Skin and Mucosal Surfaces
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Reproduced from Bacterial Pathogenesis, A molecular approach 2 nd ed., Salyers and Whitt. 2002 Innate Immunity-Skin and Mucosal Surfaces
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Langerhans cell --Reside in epidermal layer --Type of dendritic cell --Sample for antigens for presentation --Key component of SALT (skin-associated lymphoid tissue) From Immunology, Infection, and Immunity. Pier, Lyczak, and Wetzler. 2004
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Reproduced from Bacterial Pathogenesis, A molecular approach 2 nd ed., Salyers and Whitt. 2002 Innate Immunity-Skin and Mucosal Surfaces
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+ + + +++ + + + + + + + + + Antibacterial peptides Bacterium Bacterium peptides Destruction of membrane Barrel-stave model
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MALT (mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue) Antigen sampling across the intestinal barrier by M cells. Basolateral membrane of M cell contains a large pocket that is occupied by lymphocytes and macrophages. The lymphoid associated tissue of the gastrointestinal tract is GALT . Peyer ʼ s patches in the side of small intestine
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Morphology and lineage of cells involved in immune response
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Innate Immunity (nonspecific)
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Phagocytic and Cytotoxic Cells: cellular effectors of innate immunity A . Phagocytic cells Moncycte Macrophage PMN (Polymorphonucelar neutrophil) Phagocytosis : ingestion of foreign particles by a cell Phagocyte :
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