GenCh5answers

GenCh5answers - 1. An Hfr strain has the fertility factor F...

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1. An Hfr strain has the fertility factor F integrated into the chromosome. An F + strain has the fertility factor free in the cytoplasm. An F strain lacks the fertility factor. 2. All cultures of F + strains have a small proportion of cells in which the F factor is integrated into the bacterial chromosome and are, by definition, Hfr cells. These Hfr cells transfer markers from the host chromosome to a recipient during conjugation. 3. a. Hfr cells involved in conjugation transfer host genes in a linear fashion. The genes transferred depend on both the Hfr strain and the length of time during which the transfer occurred. Therefore, a population containing several different Hfr strains will appear to have an almost random transfer of host genes. This is similar to generalized transduction, in which the viral protein coat forms around a specific amount of DNA rather than specific genes. In generalized transduction, any gene can be transferred. b. F´ factors arise from improper excision of an Hfr from the bacterial chromosome. They can have only specific bacterial genes on them because the integration site is fixed for each strain. Specialized transduction resembles this in that the viral particle integrates into a specific region of the bacterial chromosome and then, upon improper excision, can take with it only specific bacterial genes. In both cases, the transferred gene exists as a second copy. 4. Generalized transduction occurs with lytic phages that enter a bacterial cell, fragment the bacterial chromosome, and then, while new viral particles are being assembled, improperly incorporate some bacterial DNA within the viral protein coat. Because the amount of DNA, not the information content of the DNA, is what governs viral particle formation, any bacterial gene can be included within the newly formed virus. In contrast, specialized transduction occurs with improper excision of viral DNA from the host chromosome in lysogenic phages. Because the integration site is fixed, only those bacterial genes very close to the integration site will be included in a newly formed virus. 5.
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GenCh5answers - 1. An Hfr strain has the fertility factor F...

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