Lecture - C.bot, C. perfringens, B.cereus

Lecture - C.bot, C. perfringens, B.cereus - Treatment of...

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Treatment of Botulism Binding of toxin permanent: recovery requires axon to sprout new terminal to replace damage. Antiserum neutralizes circulating serum toxin. Without antiserum toxin present in sera for 28 days Laboratory confirmation of toxin and/or organisms obtained 75% of time CDC recommends 1 dose of equine trivalent (A,B,E) antitoxin Other therapy: agents to improve acetylcholine release, antibiotics Antibiotics not used for infants due to release of toxin from dying bacteria
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Infant Botulism Incubation 3-30 days First sign is constipation (>3 days) Followed by lethargy, difficulty swallowing, breathing Honey now <20% cases, dust?, diet? Age=1 week to 11 months, peak at 2-4 months 60 cases/year Fatality 2%, but may cause 5% of SID Risk factors: rural environment, corn syrup, infrequent bowel movement, breast feeding?, microflora?
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Clostridium perfringens Gram-positive non-motile rod shaped Permissive anaerobe (tolerates exposure) Encapsulated Non-motile bacterium Variable size Fast growing: 10 min doubling time Causes a broad spectrum of human and veterinary diseases.
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C. Perfringens Types/Toxins Five types recognized: A,B,C,D, and E Thirteen toxins: different strains produce different toxin subsets Types are based on toxin profile
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Pathogenicity is largely derived from ability to express at protein toxins. Typing is based on antiserum neutralization tests for toxin types PCR-based assays now available Type A is major foodborne pathogen (also gas gangrene, but heat sensitive) Type A: α toxin= C. perfringens enterotoxin (CPE) and θ toxin Typing of C. perfringens
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