Lecture - Milk and Dairy

Lecture - Milk and Dairy - MILK AND DAIRY THE GOOD CULTURED...

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MILK AND DAIRY THE GOOD CULTURED DAIRY PRODUCTS (LACTIC ACID BACTERIA) THE BAD PATHOGENS THE UGLY SPOILAGE
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Industrial dairy processes Pasteurization Sterilization Fermentation Dehydration Refrigeration Freezing
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MILK SPOILAGE MICROORGANISMS 1. Gram-negative psychrotrophic organisms 2. Coliform and lactic acid bacteria 3. Spore-forming bacteria 4. Yeasts and molds. Objective: Understand SPOILAGE MICROORGANISMS and PRODUCT DEFECTS they produce
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Good growth Medium: Variety of nutrients High water content NEAR NEUTRAL pH MAJOR COMPONENTS: WATER (87.3%) LACTOSE (4.6%): complex sugar (some glucose) BUTTERFAT (2.5 - 6%) PROTEIN: CASEIN (2.6%) and WHEY (0.6%)
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SUGAR CARBON SOURCES ENERGY Glucose (simple) Trace amount Enough to initiate growth Lactose (more complex) Bacteria vary in ability to metabolize Lactose fermenting bacteria Glucose + Galactose
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COMPLEX CARBON SOURCES FAT: Limited usage by spoilage organisms Lipolytic bacteria Protected in fat globules with membrane (Must be physically degraded) PROTEIN: Caseins and whey
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NITROGEN SOURCES PROTEIN: Casein Highly hydrated micelles Readily susceptible to proteolysis. Whey proteins Remain in whey during cheese making Less susceptible to proteolysis NON-PROTEIN NITROGEN: Readily available for microbial utilization
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MINERALS AND MICRONUTRIENTS VITAMINS Especially B vitamins Vitamin D added MINERALS Macro- minerals Calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium Phosphates, citrates, chlorides Micro- minerals (trace) Iron, cobalt, copper , molybdenum.
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NATURAL INHIBITORS 1. LACTOFERRIN Glycoprotein which binds
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Lecture - Milk and Dairy - MILK AND DAIRY THE GOOD CULTURED...

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