Notes - Meat, Poultry, Seafood

Notes - Meat, Poultry, Seafood - Chapter 5 Meat, Poultry,...

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Chapter 5 Meat, Poultry, Seafood Criteria for spoilage: Organoleptic Indicators: changes in color or texture off flavors or odors slime. Result from decomposition and formation of metabolites. Subjective: influenced by culture and economic factors Varies with the type of microflora, muscle species, product composition, and storage environment Contamination in Red Meats: Tissue sterile until exposed to processing Hide , hooves, G.I. tract, lymphatics major source Evisceration pierces intestinal tract Aerosols provide cross contamination Processing structure and equipment: floors, walls, contact surfaces, knives Environmental (Soil) and fecal microorganisms : Pseudomonas, Listeria , yeast, and molds Ingredients: spices, salt, and dried milk powder may also be contaminated Employee hands ( Staphylococcus ) MAD COW Bovine Spongiform Encephalitis (BSE) Transmitted to animals through feed Not infectious animal to animal (except maternal to fetal) Only in neural tissue (brain, spine, intestine) Poultry Contamination Sources: feathers, skins, feet, and feces. Birds bled and hung: flapping generate aerosols. Carcasses scalded to remove feathers, defeathering machines spread contaminants
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Evisceration equipment spray-washed but firmly attached bacteria remain. Carcasses chilled to limit bacterial growth. Chilling includes slush ice chilling, spray chilling, air chilling, and CO 2 chilling. Transportation stress: more frequent excretion food withheld before slaughter Microbial Progression with Storage Spoilage organisms highly variable , but remarkably similar characteristics Usually dominated by few or single species Psychrotrophic microorganisms generally dominate Pseudomonas out compete other species with aerobic storage Lactobacillus , Brochothrix predominate with anaerobic storage Low a w favors molds and yeasts Refrigeration restricts mesophiles to extend shelf life. Initial population influences the final spoilage microflora
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Notes - Meat, Poultry, Seafood - Chapter 5 Meat, Poultry,...

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