CHM2046 - Lecture Nanoscience Part 2

CHM2046 - Lecture Nanoscience Part 2 - Nature's Way* -...

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Nature's Way* - Transducing Bio- Recognition Events with Nanotubes Charles R. Martin Department of Chemistry Center for Research at the Bio/Nano Interface University of Florida Center for Research at the Bio/Nano Interface * Spirit, “ Twelve Dreams of Dr. Sardonicus ,” Epic Records, KPE 30267, 1970.
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Outline Center for Research at the Bio/Nano Interface Protein sensing with biofunctionalized gold nanotubes Template-synthesized nanotubes as ion channel mimics A brief introduction to ligand-gated ion channels Key point – A bio-recognition event is transduced into an easily measurable ion current Single molecule detection with nanotubes and pores
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Schematic Drawing of a Neuron http://www.nida.nih.gov/MOM/TG/momtg-introbg.html Dendrites – receive information from neighboring neurons Cell body – directs activities of the neuron Axon – transmits the nerve impulse electrically Axon terminals – transmit information to neighboring cells
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Schematic Drawing of a Synapse Axon Terminal of Neuron Sending Information Dendrite of Neuron Receiving Information Synaptic Gap ~20 μ m Molecular-Recognition (Binding) Site for Neurotransmitter
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Information is Carried from the Pre- to the Post-Synaptic Cell by the Neurotransmitter Molecular-recognition (binding) site for neurotransmitter
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Acetylcholine-Gated Ion-Channel – The Molecular-Recognition Sites are on the Channel Synaptic Gap Molecular-recognition (binding) sites for ACh Cell Membrane of Post-Synaptic Cell ~4 nm H 3 C C O O CH 2 CH 2 N CH 3 CH 3 CH 3 + The Neurotransmitter Acetylcholine (Ach)
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Acetylcholine (ACh)-Gated Ion-Channel – Chemical Sensing That Turns on an Ion Current In the absence of ACh, the channel is closed, and the ion current is off Closed Na + K + Open Na + K + Binding of ACh opens the channel, and the ion current is switched on ACh
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Nature’s Way and Our Objectives Information needs to be transmitted from one cell to another The information is sent in the form of a chemical messenger A “nanotube” (the ion channel) with selective molecular- recognition sites binds the messenger The ionic conductivity of the nanotube changes in response to this molecular-recognition and binding event The objective of our research effort is to develop artificial nanotubes that mimic this information transmission/ reception function One application of the technology that we are developing is in biosensing
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June 11, 2001 cover of Chemical and Engineering News Our Nanotubes are Prepared by Template-Synthesis See - C.R. Martin, “ Nanomaterials - A Membrane-Based Synthetic Approach ,” Science, 1994, 266, 1961-1966. A versatile nanomaterials synthesis method developed in my research group starting in the 1980s Can be used to make nanowires and nanotubes composed of nearly any material This method is now practiced in laboratories and companies everywhere in the world
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Electron Micrograph of a “ Track- Etched ” Polymeric Template Template Synthesis Begins with a Membrane or Other Solid with Monodisperse Nanoscopic Pores 1 μ m Electron Micrograph of a “Anodic Alumina” Template
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CHM2046 - Lecture Nanoscience Part 2 - Nature's Way* -...

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