ZOO4232 - Lecture 7 Visceral Flukes

ZOO4232 - Lecture 7 Visceral Flukes - 9/19/2010 VISCERAL...

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9/19/2010 1 VISCERAL FLUKES Species of eight genera commonly infect various visceral organs of humans. Members of genera Fasciola Clonorchis and Opisthorchis reside in the liver. Another four, Fasciolopsis, Heterophyes, Metagonimus and Echinostoma inhabit the small intestine. Another one, Paragonimus live in the lung. FASCIOLA HEPATICA Fasciola hepatica is a large digenic trematode that parasitizes man. It can be easily distingished from other trematodes by its highly branched testes and intestinal caeca and its anterior prominent cephalic cone (oral and ventral suckers). The adult worm lives in the bile duct, liver, and gall bladder.
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9/19/2010 2
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9/19/2010 3 EPIDEMIOLOGY Human infection by F. hepatica occurs throughout the world and is of increasing importance in the Caribbean Islands, South America, southern France and Great Britain and Algeria. Human infections are associated with cattle growing regions and the ingestion of watercress. Infections in cattle and sheep produce large economic losses in wool, milk, and meat production. SYMPTOMATOLOGY AND DIAGNOSIS Infection with F. hepatica (Fascioliasis) is characterized by extensive damage to the liver and bile duct, hemorr- hage, atrophy of portal vessels. In addition, the host can become sensitized to the parasites metabolic end products. Juvenile worms can move to the body cavity, encyst in ectopic tissues and become calcified. Initial symptoms include headache, backache, chills and fever. An enlarged, tender or cirrhotic liver indicates adv. case.
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9/19/2010 4 Diagnosis is based on identification of the characteristic eggs from the feces. Complement-fixation tests have proven useful especially in extrahepatic infections. In the middle east, the eating of raw bovine liver infected with F. hepatica causes pain, irritation, hoarseness, and coughing due to young worms attaching to the buccal or pharyngeal membranes. This condition is called halzoun (which is commonly caused by Pentastomes or tongue worms ).
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9/19/2010 5 TREATMENT Some patients respond well to dichlorophen Globally Some patients respond well to dichlorophen. Globally, Praziquantal is currently the drug of choice, but the United States has limited it use for human infections.
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9/19/2010 6 CLONORCHIS SINENSIS Clonorchis sinensis , the chinese or Oriental liver fluke, is distributed widely in Korea, Japan, China, Taiwan and is distributed widely in Korea, Japan, China, Taiwan and Vietnam. More than 19 million people are infected with C. sinensis. This fluke has small suckers, and can infect the bile duct or gall bladder of reptiles, birds and
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This note was uploaded on 09/25/2010 for the course ZOO 4232 taught by Professor Kima during the Fall '10 term at University of Florida.

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ZOO4232 - Lecture 7 Visceral Flukes - 9/19/2010 VISCERAL...

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