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PCB3134 - Lecture 6 Enzymes as Chemical Catalysts

PCB3134 - Lecture 6 Enzymes as Chemical Catalysts -...

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Biological Catalysts: Enzymes At end of 19th century, Justus von Liebig (organic chemist) Louis Pasteur (biologist) In 1897, Hans Buchner (bacteriologist) and Eduard (chemist) In 1926, James Sumner (Cornell University) In 1980s, Thomas Cech and Sydney Altman found someRNA molecules had catalytic properties. For clarity, “enzyme” is reserved for protein catalysts, “ribozyme” is used for RNA catalysts.
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Theproperties of enzymes Enzymes are proteins. Many are conjugated proteins with nonprotein components - cofactors may be inorganic (metals) or organic (coenzymes). Properties: Are required only in small amounts Are not altered irreversibly during course of reaction Have no effect on reaction thermodynamics
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Differencebetween enzymes and inorganic catalysts 1. Moreeffective inorganic catalysts: a hundred to a thousand times enzymes: 108 to 1013 fold
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Difference between enzymes and inorganic catalysts 2. Under very mild temperature and pH conditions 3. Highly specific in reactants (substrates) they bind and the reaction they catalyze 4. Metabolic traffic directors 5. Activity can be regulated to meet particular cellular needs at particular time
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E A G G E A Transition state Activation Energy (EA)
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