PCB3134 - Lecture 14 Mitochondria, Oxidative Metabolism, TCA

PCB3134 - Lecture 14 Mitochondria, Oxidative Metabolism,...

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1. The first 2 billion years:    The atmosphere: H 2 , NH 3 , and H 2 O    Organisms: anaerobes    Metabolisms: glycolysis, fermentation 2. About 2.7 billion years ago: appearance of cyanobacteria    using light energy to split water and releasing O 2  into atmosphere. Evolution of Aerobic Respiration 3. Species evolved that were not only protected from the damaging    effects of O 2 , but possessed metabolic pathways to utilize O 2    that gave them great advantage. 4. The O 2 -dependent prokaryotes and eukaryotes living today    evolved from earlier aerobes. In eukaryotes, the utilization of O 2    takes place in mitochondrion, which may have evolved from an    ancient aerobic bacterium that took up residence inside the    cytoplasm of an anaerobic host cell.
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Mitochondria in Different Types of Cells Fibroblast Sperm 1. cane be seen in the light microscope; 2. are surrounded by a semipermeable membrane; 3. have very different overall structure, from     sausage-shaped to highly branched,     interconnected tubular network; 4. can fuse with one another, or split in two.
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The Structure of Mitochondria
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The Structure of Mitochondria 1. Outer mitochondrial membrane 2. Inner mitochondrial membrane     including inner boundary membrane     and internal cristal membranes     (crystae). They are joined to one     another by narrow connections, but     they are functionally distinct. 3. Intermembrane space 4. Matrix
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Mitochondrial Membranes Outer membrane (OM): 1. approximately 50% lipid by weight and a curious mixture of enzymes     involved in diverse activities such as oxidation of epinephrine,     degradation of tryptophan, and elongation of fatty acids. 2. homologous to an outer membrane present as part of the cell wall of
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PCB3134 - Lecture 14 Mitochondria, Oxidative Metabolism,...

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