PCB3134 - Lecture 20 Extracellular Matrix and its use in Cellular Interactions

PCB3134 - Lecture 20 Extracellular Matrix and its use in Cellular Interactions

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Interactions Between Cells and Their Environment We have learned the structure and function of    1. plasma membrane    2. mitochondrion    3. chloroplast  In this chapter, we will look at the materials present outside the    plasma membrane, including their structures and functions.
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Schematic Diagram of a Section of  Human Skin (Epithelial tissue) (Connective tissue) Cytoplasmic proteins
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Glycocalyx (Cell Coat) The basal surface of an ectodermal cell of an early chick embryo The apical surface of an epithelial cell from the lining of the intestine The layer of carbohydrate projections closely    applied to the outer surface of the plasma    membrane. Functions:    1. Mediate cell-cell and cell-substratum        interactions;    2. Provide mechanical protection to cells;    3. Serve as a barrier to particles moving        toward the PM;    4. Bind important regulatory factors that act        on the cell surface.
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The Extracellular Matrix (ECM) The insoluble non-cellular material present between cells throughout the    body of multicellular organisms is known as the extracellular matrix (ECM).    This matrix is an organized network, which is composed out of a complex    mixture of secreted molecules. The ECM is present beyond the immediate    vicinity of the PM. The outline of the    extracellular matrix produced by a cartilage    cell can be made visible by adding small    particles, such as fixed red blood cells. Functions:    1. They provide structural support and tensile strength;    2. They provide substrates for cell adhesion and cell migration;    3. The ECM regulates cellular differentiation and metabolic function, for        example by modulation of cell growth by binding of growth factors.
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Basement Membrane - the best-defined ECMs Basement membrane is a continuous 50-200    nm thick sheet Positions:    1. Surrounds muscle and fat cells;    2. Underlies the basal surface of        epithelial tissues or the lining of the        digestive and respiratory tracts;    3. Underlies the inner endothelial lining of        blood vessels.
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Functions of basement membrane:    1. Provide mechanical support for the attached cells;    2. Generate signals that maintain cell survival;    3. Serve as a substratum for cell migration;    4. Separate adjacent tissues within an organ;    5. Act as a barrier to the passage of macromolecules.
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Major components of the extracellular matrix Collagen  Fibrillar proteins Elastin  Amorphous ground substance  Proteoglycans  Adhesion proteins  Fibronectin Laminin 
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Collagens A family of fibrous glycoproteins that are only present    in ECMs, which give tensile strength to the ECM.
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