day07

# day07 - Caltech CS1 -- Fall 2008 CS1: Introduction to...

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Unformatted text preview: Caltech CS1 -- Fall 2008 CS1: Introduction to Computation Day 7: October 20, 2008 Higher Order Procedures pt. 2 (returning lambdas) Caltech CS1 -- Fall 2008 Today Some new Scheme constructs let , display , begin More on lambda procedures that return other procedures Caltech CS1 -- Fall 2008 let there be light Often want to define local values other than functions Could use internal define s Prefer to use new special form : let Caltech CS1 -- Fall 2008 Old usage Old way: (define (foo x y) (define z (+ (* x x) (* y y))) ; n.b. not a function (sqrt (* (- z x) (- z y)))) Or: (DrScheme Intermediate Student Language level) (define (foo x y) (local ((define z (+ (* x x) (* y y)))) (sqrt (* (- z x) (- z y))) ) ) Caltech CS1 -- Fall 2008 New Usage With let : (define (foo x y) (let (( z (+ (* x x) (* y y)))) (sqrt (* (- z x) (- z y))) ) ) Similar to local version, but dont need the define Caltech CS1 -- Fall 2008 Syntax & meaning ( let ((<var1> <expr1>) ; <var>: variable (<var2> <expr2>) ; <expr>: expression ) <body>) ;; can use var1 and var2 here let is like a "multiple define " can define multiple local names in a single let convenient, but exprs must not depend on previous vars ! Caltech CS1 -- Fall 2008 Syntax & meaning ( let ((<var1> <expr1>) ; <var>: variable (<var2> <expr2>) ; <expr>: expression ) <body>) ;; can use var1 and var2 here Can have one or more <var>/<expr> pairs <expr> is evaluated, bound to <var> Substitute value of <expr> for <var> in <body> Caltech CS1 -- Fall 2008 Hmm, that sounds familiar Substitute value of <expr> for var in <body> Where else have we seen this? lambda expressions Coincidence? I think not! Caltech CS1 -- Fall 2008 let is lambda in disguise ( let ((var1 <expr1>) (var2 <expr2>)) <body>) This is syntactic sugar for: (( lambda (var1 var2) <body>) <expr1> <expr2>) Substitution model is unchanged! let Caltech CS1 -- Fall 2008 let is lambda in disguise ( let (( x 1) ( y 2)) (+ x y) ) This is syntactic sugar for: (( lambda ( x y ) (+ x y) ) 1 2) Caltech CS1 -- Fall 2008 Why use let ? Can evaluate an expression once and use multiple times avoid unnecessary computations Can use it anywhere dont need internal define s for local variables no restrictions like with internal define s Can define multiple things in one let Caltech CS1 -- Fall 2008 let pitfall This doesn't work as you'd expect: (let ((x (* 2 3)) (y (* x 2))) (+ x y)) Might expect this to return 18 ( i.e. 6 + 12) Actually, might result in an error, or a different value, depending on value of x before the let expression Caltech CS1 -- Fall 2008 let pitfall (let ((x (* 2 3)) (y (* x 2))) ; not the x on prev line (+ x y)) Rule: the values of the exprs are evaluated using values that existed outside the let Desugaring let lambda will show why this is the case Caltech CS1 -- Fall 2008 let pitfall If you want to achieve the same effect, write nested let expressions: (let ((x (* 2 3)) (let ((y (* x 2))) (+ x y)))) Caltech CS1 -- Fall 2008...
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## This note was uploaded on 09/25/2010 for the course CS 1 taught by Professor Chang during the Spring '08 term at UMBC.

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day07 - Caltech CS1 -- Fall 2008 CS1: Introduction to...

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