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day09 - Caltech CS 1 -- Fall 2008 CS1: Introduction to...

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Unformatted text preview: Caltech CS 1 -- Fall 2008 CS1: Introduction to Computation Day 9: October 27, 2008 List Processing (Special pre-Halloween Lecture) I ♥ CS 1! Caltech CS 1 -- Fall 2008 Today • More new Scheme constructs – type predicates, error • New data type: lists • Extended example – collecting experimental data Caltech CS 1 -- Fall 2008 Type Predicates • pair? – Scheme function that tells us if argument is a cons cell (pair? (cons 3 4)) #t (pair? 3) #f Caltech CS 1 -- Fall 2008 Other Type Predicates • (number? x) #t for integers, rationals, reals, … #f for non-numbers • (boolean? x) #t for #t or #f #f for anything else • (procedure? x) you get the idea Caltech CS 1 -- Fall 2008 error • Sometimes, things go wrong during a computation • Need way to abort computation early • Use the error function Caltech CS 1 -- Fall 2008 error (define (factorial n) (cond ((< n 0) ( error "factorial -- invalid n")) ((= n 0) 1) (else (* n (factorial (- n 1)))))) Caltech CS 1 -- Fall 2008 error (factorial -1) factorial -- invalid n • Aborts entire computation, prints message, returns to interpreter Caltech CS 1 -- Fall 2008 error • Can also add data to print when error happens (define (factorial n) (cond ((< n 0) ( error "factorial -- invalid n: " n )) ((= n 0) 1) (else (* n (factorial (- n 1)))))) Caltech CS 1 -- Fall 2008 error (factorial -1) factorial -- invalid n: -1 • Provides more information to user Caltech CS 1 -- Fall 2008 On to lists ... Caltech CS 1 -- Fall 2008 Common situation • Need to represent an ordered sequence of data • So far, know how to create pairs – and pairs of pairs • and pairs of pairs of pairs... • How to exploit this to create a "list" of data? Caltech CS 1 -- Fall 2008 nil • First designate a special "end of list" value – generally called nil – We'll represent as a box with a slash through it: nil Caltech CS 1 -- Fall 2008 nil and null? • Can generate nil value by calling the function list with no arguments: (list) – i.e. nil is the "empty list" • Can define nil if we want to: (define nil (list)) –but not really necessary • To test for nil , use null? – returns #t if argument is nil, #f otherwise Caltech CS 1 -- Fall 2008 Note • The name nil is not predefined in DrScheme – so don't use it unless you define it yourself • Usually we just use (list) instead • Sometimes I'll say nil in this lecture anyway for convenience Caltech CS 1 -- Fall 2008 Lists • Can create list of items by joining together cons pairs ending in nil : Caltech CS 1 -- Fall 2008 Lists • Can create list of items by joining together cons pairs ending in nil : Caltech CS 1 -- Fall 2008 Lists • Can create list of items by joining together cons pairs ending in nil : Caltech CS 1 -- Fall 2008 Lists • Can create list of items by joining together cons pairs ending in nil : Caltech CS 1 -- Fall 2008 Lists • Can define a list in Scheme like this: (define our-list (cons 1 (cons 2 (cons 3 nil))) ) our-list (cons 1 (cons 2 (cons 3 nil))) Caltech CS 1 -- Fall 2008...
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This note was uploaded on 09/25/2010 for the course CS 1 taught by Professor Chang during the Spring '08 term at UMBC.

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day09 - Caltech CS 1 -- Fall 2008 CS1: Introduction to...

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