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Bi1_2009_Lecture2_full

Bi1_2009_Lecture2_full - Common functional and structural...

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Common functional and structural properties of all cells Membrane (boundary between the cell and environment) Cytosol (fluid in which biological reactions take place) DNA (hereditary material)/RNA (message made from DNA) Ribosomes (translation of genetic information into proteins, the molecules that perform the metabolic functions of the cell) ATP (universal energy currency)
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The light microscope Can magnify cells up to 1000x and resolve details of 0.2 ± m. How we study cells
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Transmission Electron Microscopy Can magnify up to 1x10 6 times and resolve details of 2-6 nm.
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Sizes in biology Higher resolution now possible
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Clicker question Do all cells have organelles? A) Yes B) No
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membrane Bacteria (procaryotes) have no organelles Procaryote = “before nucleus”
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Eucaryotic cells contain membrane-enclosed organelles distributed within the cytoplasm Eucaryote = “truly nucleus”
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Evolution of membranous organelles?
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Lipid bilayers enclose the cell and organelles within the cell Little Alberts, Figures 11-3 and 11-4c
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http://multimedia.mcb.harvard.edu/anim_innerlife_hi.html
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Clicker question Why do lipids form bilayers? A) The hydrophobic tails stick together B) The hydrophobic head groups stick together C) The hydrophilic tails stick together D) The hydrophilic head groups stick together E) Previous Bi1 students told them to
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The Cytoskeleton The cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells contains three classes of dynamic protein filaments, which together form the cytoskeleton. Intermediate filaments -- enable cells to withstand mechanical stress. Microtubules -- create a series of tracks on which vesicles and organelles can move. Actin filaments -- essential for movements (e.g., macrophage engulfing of particles).
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http://multimedia.mcb.harvard.edu/anim_innerlife_hi.html
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Clicker question The nucleus contains: A) Ribosomes B) Mitochondria C) Chromosomes D) Farandolae
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Nucleus Enclosed within a double membrane that forms the nuclear envelope. Contains DNA, the genetic information of the organism. Chromosomes become visible just before cell division. Individual chromosomes are not visible in the nucleus because the DNA is dispersed at this point in the cell cycle. Little Alberts, Figures 1-15 and 1-16
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DNA packaging
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Chromosomes are visible only when cells prepare to divide
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Clicker question Fill in the blanks: Human somatic cells* have __ chromosomes. Human germ cells* have __ chromosomes. A) 46; 23 B) 23; 46 C) 46; 46 D) 23; 23 * Somatic cell: Any cell in a plant or animal except for the reproductive (germ) cells.
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