Scientific Integrity

Scientific Integrity - Scientific
Integrity


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Unformatted text preview: Scientific
Integrity
 A
Primer
for
Undergraduates
 
 Are
you
planning
to
be
a
scientist?
 A
doctor?
 A
dentist?
 How
about
an
opthamologist
or
pharmacist?
 Regardless
of
your
career
plans,
the
most
important
characteristic
or
skill
you
can
offer
is
your
integrity.

 What
IS
integrity?
 Most
people
probably
think
of
integrity
as
a
personal
thing,
an
issue
of
character.
For
example,
something
who
 thinks
“I
am
a
good
person”
probably
would
consider
themselves
to
be
a
person
of
integrity.

 But
integrity
in
the
professions
is
more
specific
than
being
a
“good
person,”
because
the
definition
of
“good”
 can
vary
and
your
measurement
of
“good”
can
differ
from
someone
else’s.
For
example,
some
people
think
 they
are
good
because
they
have
never
been
in
trouble.
Or,
because
their
intentions
or
“heart”
are
good.
 Professional
integrity,
on
the
other
hand,
requires
us
to
not
only
be
“good”
by
our
own
standards
and
 definitions,
but
by
the
standards
and
definitions
of
our
employer
and
our
profession,
as
well
as
perhaps,
of
 society.

 Let’s
go
over
a
very
concrete
example.
 A
few
years
back,
there
were
several
pharmacists
in
the
United
States
who
made
national
headlines
because
 they
were
refusing
to
fill
prescriptions
for
birth
control
or
the
“morning
after
pill.”
Women,
prescribed
these
 drugs
by
their
personal
physicians,
were
being
turned
away
from
pharmacies
even
if
there
was
not
another
 pharmacy
for
miles
around
to
which
the
women
could
turn.
 These
pharmacists
were
acting
in
ways
that
upheld
their
personal
values
and
beliefs,
in
ways
that,
one
could
 say,
were
aligned
or
congruent
with
themselves.
So,
almost
anyone
would
agree
that
these
pharmacists
were
 exhibiting
personal
integrity,
that
is,
congruency
between
their
rhetoric
(what
they
say)
and
their
actions
(what
 they
do).
 However,
at
the
same
time,
these
pharmacists
may
have
been
violating
professional
integrity
standards.
 Pharmacists
are
not
in
the
profession
of
deciding
what
drugs
people
should
take‐‐‐that’s
a
doctor’s
job.
By
 refusing
service
to
women
who
had
no
alternatives,
these
pharmacists
were
not
being
professional
but
using
 their
profession
to
impose
their
personal
beliefs
on
their
clients.
 The
illustration
above
is
a
concrete
example
of
the
very
tricky
ethical
minefield
of
professional
integrity.
 As
a
professional
(i.e.,
doctor,
pharmacist,
scientist),
you
will
face
complex
ethical
dilemmas
like
this
on
a
 regular
basis
and
you
will
be
expected
to
be
able
to
problem
solve
through
them
and
do
“the
right
thing”
and,
 when
you
make
your
choice
of
action,
be
willing
to
be
held
accountable
for
whatever
consequences
come
 about
as
a
result
of
your
decision.
 This
type
of
professional
integrity
is
critically
important
for
all
professions,
but
perhaps
for
no
professions
 more
than
those
held
by
university
graduates
and
those
that
serve
society
in
some
way
(and,
I
would
argue,
 ALL
professions
serve
society‐‐‐look
at
the
financial
profession
and
how
that
has
NOT
served
society
well
in
the
 last
couple
of
years).
 What
does
this
mean
for
YOU
as
anundergraduate?
 You
are
a
professional‐in‐training.

 For
example,
in
these
physics
lab
classes,
we
are
not
simply
trying
to
teach
you
physics
concepts,
but
ways
of
 thinking,
acting,
and
problem‐solving.
The
labs
are
your
opportunity
for
EXPERIENTIAL
learning‐‐‐yes!
The
 opportunity
to
learn
in
an
active
way
rather
than
by
sitting
through
yet
another
lecture.
 What
you
learn
in
the
physics
labs
has
DIRECT
relation
to
your
future
professions‐‐‐no
matter
what
you
are
 going
to
be
doing.

Just
some
examples
of
the
learning
outcomes
are:
 1. Complex
problem
solving‐‐‐in
the
physics
labs,
you
will
encounter
problems
that
you
have
absolutely
 NO
idea
how
to
solve!
The
point
of
these
problems
is
not
to
“test”
you
to
s ee
if
you
can
look
up
the
 answers
on
the
internet
or
secure
the
help
of
a
smarter
friend,
but
to
give
you
the
experience
of
 struggling
through
a
complex
problem
in
order
to
learn
the
associated
skills.
What
are
these
skills?
 Persistence,
trial‐and‐error
testing,
deductive
reasoning,
application
of
theory
to
practice,
focus
 despite
difficulty‐‐‐and
these
are
just
some
of
them!
Everyone
is
different,
of
course,
so
what
you
can
 learn
will
be
unique.
But,
believe
it
or
not,
there
is
some
value
in
first
attempting
to
solve
problems
on
 your
own
with
your
own
brain!
 
 2. Scientific
Method‐‐‐the
scientific
method
(the
process
of
discovery)
is
not
just
something
useful
in
 research
professions,
but
doctors
and
other
practitioners
find
the
method
useful
for
answering
 questions
for
which
there
are
no
known
answers.
And,
there
WILL
be
questions
that
you
will
 encounter
throughout
your
life
for
which
the
answer
will
not
be
found
on
the
internet!
Again,
the
goal
 is
not
to
get
at
the
right
answer,
but
to
go
through
the
process.
 
 3. Truthful
Reporting‐‐‐one
skill
we
learn
through
the
physics
labs
(or
any
labs
for
that
matter),
is
how
to
 report
with
truth
and
transparency
the
results
of
our
study
and
the
learnings
we
had.
This
is
actually
a
 learned
skill,
as
it
can
be
easier
to
manipulate
findings‐‐‐especially
when
the
real
findings
are
not
the
 ones
we
were
hoping
to
get!
Integrous
doctors,
pharmacists,
scientists
and
other
professionals
know
 that
communicating
truthful
information
is
always
more
important
than
communicating
information
 that
will
make
one
look
better
in
the
eyes
of
the
receiver
of
that
information.
Although
it
is
more
 difficult,
nothing
is
more
important
than
truthful
reporting.
 Hopefully
this
information
helps
you
see
how
you
can
engage
in
your
physics
labs
as
useful
learning
 experiences‐‐‐no
matter
your
future
profession!
 Indeed,
being
a
student
with
integrity
is
preparation
for
your
future
profession.
In
fact,
think
of
being
a
student
 as
your
profession
at
this
time.
Being
a
student
is
your
job,
and
just
like
other
jobs
or
professions,
it
has
tenets
 for
professional
integrity.
This
means
that
sometimes
you
will
be
expected
to
conduct
your
work
(e.g.,
your
 academic
assignments,
labs,
tests)
according
to
standards
with
which
you
may
disagree.
 For
example,
although
you
may
prefer
to
have
a
“cheat
sheet”
when
you
take
exams,
you
know
that
you
are
 not
permitted
to
do
so
unless
designated
by
the
instructor.
Thus,
sneaking
in
a
“cheat
sheet”
to
an
exam
would
 be
considered
a
violation
of
your
professional
or
academic
integrity.
Why
is
this?
Well,
first
it
is
a
matter
of
 fairness.
Why
should
you
get
to
use
a
cheat
sheet
if
no
one
else
does?
This
is
what
we
call
“an
unfair
 advantage.”
Second,
it
is
dishonest.
When
the
instructor
is
grading
your
exam,
he
or
she
assumes
that
you
 comp leted
it
without
assistance
and
so,
if
you
had
assistance
in
the
form
of
a
“cheat
sheet,”
it
is
a
dishonest
 assessment
of
your
individual
ability.
Third,
it
is
a
sign
of
weak
character,
of
someone
who
is
so
focused
on
the
 ends
(i.e.,
getting
a
certain
grade)
that
s/he
is
willing
to
do
whatever
it
takes
to
get
there
despite
the
harm
 s/he
is
causing
to
self
or
others.
And
frankly,
we
are
hoping
to
graduate
students
from
UCSD
who
more
often
 than
not,
put
the
means
BEFORE
the
ends!
 One
of
the
major
challenges
that
students
have
in
physics
labs
(as
well
as
other
science
labs)
is
understanding
 the
line
between
collaboration
and
copying
or
“using
your
resources”
and
doing
your
own
work.
Tenets
of
 professional
integrity
in
the
sciences
tell
us
that
collaborating
with
others
to
learn
and
solve
problems
is
a
 good
thing!
But,
these
same
tenets
also
tell
us
that
we
acknowledge
the
assistance
and
work
of
others
and
the
 way
those
others
have
shaped
our
own
thinking
and
ideas.
So,
for
example,
when
researchers
collaborate
to
 do
a
study
and
write
a
paper,
ALL
OF
THEIR
names
are
listed
as
authors
of
the
paper
and
they
receive
“group
 credit”
for
that
work.
Even
those
who
“helped”
but
didn’t
directly
contribute
to
the
writing
(e.g.,
lab
assistants)
 are
acknowledged
in
some
way
in
the
paper
or
the
research
project.
However,
if
one
scientist
copied
the
 words,
ideas
or
data
of
another
and
used
those
in
his/her
own
publication,
everyone
would
call
that
 dishonesty.
 This
is
both
similar
and
different
for
you
as
an
undergraduate.
It
is
similar
because
you
should
never
use
the
 words
or
ideas
or
data
of
others
(even
others
in
your
lab
group)
without
attribution.
It
is
different
because
 most
of
your
assignments
are
NOT
group
assignments
for
which
you
will
get
group
credit
(i.e.,
one
assignment
 is
submitted
for
one
grade
for
everyone
in
the
group).
Your
assignments,
generally,
are
supposed
to
represent
 what
you
know
and
think
and
your
ability
to
solve
problems.
This
does
not
mean
that
you
cannot
talk
about
 concepts
and
ideas
with
others,
but
it
does
mean
that
you
should
not
simply
copy
the
words
and
ideas
of
 others.
 So,
to
maintain
your
professional
integrity
as
a
student,
we
suggest
that
you
approach
individual
assignments
 in
the
following
manner:
 1. Attempt
to
do
the
assignment/problems
on
your
own‐‐‐using
your
own
brain
and
the
resources
from
 the
class
(lecture
notes,
text
book,
etc).
 2. As
you
encounter
problems
that
you
get
stuck
on,
realize
that
you
have
two
course
of
action
from
 which
you
can
choose:

 a. First,
choose
not
to
learn
how
to
solve
the
problem
and
simply
hand
in
the
assignment
with
it
 completed
to
the
best
of
your
individual
ability.
You
may
have
to
make
this
choice,
for
 example,
if
you’ve
left
the
assignment
to
the
last
minute
and
do
not
have
time
to
seek
the
 appropriate
assistance.

 b. Second,
you
can
choose
to
seek
out
appropriate
assistance
to
learn
how
to
solve
the
problem
 (NOTE
that
the
language
here
is
not
to
“get
the
right
answer”
but
to
“learn
how
to
solve
the
 problem.”
This
is
not
just
semantics
but
representative
of
a
fundamental
difference
in
 motivation
which
will
shape
your
decisions
for
action).
What
is
the
appropriate
assistance?
 Your
best
bet
is
to
go
to
the
Physics
Tutorial
Lab,
your
TA’s
office
hours,
or
your
Instructor’s
 office
hours.
If
you
do
have
a
study
group,
you
can
also
work
with
them
but
REMEMBER‐‐‐you
 should
not
get
them
to
solve
the
problems
for
you
but,
perhaps,
explain
the
concepts
over
 which
you
are
struggling.
You
should
still
solve
the
problems
on
your
own.
Note
that
this
 course
of
action
takes
more
time
and
requires
more
planning
and
less
procrastination.
 3. At
all
times,
remember
that
in
individual
assignments
you
are
receiving
an
individual
grade
for
your
 individual
ability.
The
grade
should
reflect
the
extent
to
which
you
LEARNED
the
material.
This
means
 that
once
you
turn
the
assignment
in,
if
the
TA
or
Instructor
asked
you
to
resolve
the
problem
on
your
 own,
you
would
be
able
to
do
it.
If
you
couldn’t
do
that,
than
you
probably
copied
too
much
of
your
 assignment
from
others
without
really
understanding
the
material.

 4. Before
you
choose
any
action,
think
of
the
professor
standing
behind
you!
You
can
ask
yourself,
if
s/he
 was
standing
there,
would
you
still
do
what
you
are
planning
to
do?
This
is
always
a
good
“ethical
 check”
to
see
if
you
are
upholding
professional
integrity!
 Why
are
we
telling
you
all
of
this?
Do
we
think
that
you
are
dishonest
people
or
cheaters?
 No‐‐‐we
believe
that
the
majority
of
our
students
are
good
people
who
make
bad
ethical
decisions
sometimes
 when
they
are:
 • • • • • Pressed
for
time
 Pressured
by
family
members
and
other
people
to
“succeed”

 Focused
on
the
grades
rather
than
the
learning
 Doing
assignments
at
the
last
minute
 Too
dependent
on
other
people
and
the
internet
for
the
answers,
rather
than
self‐reliant
and
 confident
in
own
ability
to
do
the
work
 So,
although
we
may
not
have
a
campus
full
of
“cheaters,”
we
do
seem
to
have
a
fairly
significant
problem
on
 the
UCSD
campus‐‐‐students
who
are
willing
to
take
the
risk
for
the
grade
despite
the
significant
costs
they
 may
face
if
caught.
We
urge
you
to
consider
all
of
the
above
before
you
act
so
that
you
do
not
become
one
of
 the
600+
students
reported
for
cheating
each
year.
In
the
end,
it
is
much
easier
to
explain
to
a
medical,
dental,
 pharmacy,
or
other
professional
school
why
you
got
that
C
than
why
you
weredisciplined
for
cheating!
 For
more
information
about
academic
integrity
at
UCSD,
please
read
the
material
at
 http://academicintegrity.ucsd.edu
 
 LEARNING
AND
UNDERSTANDING
THE
MATERIAL
IN
THIS
PRIMER
AND
ON
THE
WEBSITE
(particularly
the
 “Cheating
&
Consequences”
page)
WILL
BE
USEFUL
FOR
YOUR
FIRST
READING
QUIZ!
 ...
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