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Bi1_2009_Lecture14_full

Bi1_2009_Lecture14_full - CDC definition of AIDS A =...

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A = Acquired = a virus received from someone else I = Immune = an individual’s natural protection against disease-causing microorganisms D = Deficiency = a deterioration of the immune system S = Syndrome = a group of signs and symptoms that together define AIDS as a human disease CDC* definition of AIDS * (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; Atlanta, GA)
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What is AIDS? • HIV infection is not AIDS (is “HIV disease”) •AIDS is umbrella term for 26 known diseases and symptoms • AIDS diagnosis if meet three conditions: – Have one or more of known diseases/symptoms See next two slides CD4 T cell count <200/ ± L What is CD4? What are T cells? Test positive for HIV What do HIV tests detect?
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Figure 9-22 Opportunistic infections and malignancies in AIDS patients
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Symptoms of AIDS (each symptom can be caused by another disease; can’t rely on symptoms to diagnose AIDS) • Rapid weight loss • Dry cough • Recurring fevers, night sweats • Unexplained fatigue • Swollen lymph glands • Diarrhea that lasts more than a month • White spots on tongue, in mouth, or throat (thrush) • Pneumonia • Red, brown, pink or purplish blotches on skin or inside mouth, nose, or eyelids (Kaposi Sarcoma) • Memory loss, depression, other neurological disorders
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DNA viruses follow the “Central Dogma” DNA --> RNA --> Protein transcription translation Most RNA viruses also follow part of the Central Dogma RNA --> Protein
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Joined Max Delbrück’s group at Caltech in 1949 to work on bacteriophage. Switched to animal oncoviruses. Joined Dulbecco’s group at Caltech in late 1950s. Caltech PhD, 1959 (Animal Virology). President of Caltech; 1997 - 2006. Now Professor of Biology at Caltech. 1975 Nobel Prize
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HIV is a Retrovirus Retroviruses do NOT follow the Central Dogma • Retroviruses are a subset of RNA viruses that reverse usual flow of genetic information within host cell. – Reverse transcription of viral RNA into viral DNA RNA --> DNA --> RNA --> Protein • Reverse transcriptase makes double-stranded DNA from RNA. – RT is a RNA-dependent DNA polymerase
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Expression Membrane Targeting Budding Maturation Nuclear transport Integration Uncoating Reverse Transcription Binding Membrane Fusion Overview of Retroviral Life Cycle ( For exogenous retrovirus start here) (For endogenous retrovirus start here)
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HIV structure (Beware: some inaccuracies in movie) • Diameter ~100 nm (1000 Å) • Outer envelope (lipid bilayer membrane) contains gp120/gp41 spikes ) and random cellular (host) receptors acquired during budding gp = glycoprotein; # refers to its molecular weight in kilodaltons • Capsid (Bullet-shaped core) – Protein arranged with symmetry related to an icosahedron – RNA inside core: 2 copies of positive sense RNA (~9500 bases) Problems with movie: i) only ~14 spikes per virion ii) HIV does NOT contain an icosahedral matrix (other enveloped viruses, such as Herpes, do) http://www.lifehouseproductions.com/hiv_anim.html
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