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Bi1_2009_Lecture16_full

Bi1_2009_Lecture16_full - Clicker question Swine flu is a...

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Clicker question Swine flu is a dangerous form of influenza. Which of the following is true: 1) Swine flu is highly contagious amongst pigs, but does not infect humans. 2) Swine flu is normally spread only amongst pigs, but can be caught by humans by eating infected pork products. 5) Swine flu can be caught by humans through contact with infected pigs and/or their environment. However, there are NO documented cases of human-to-human spread. 6) Swine flu can be caught by humans through contact with infected pigs and/or their environment. Many of the current swine flu cases resulted from human-to-human spread.
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Clicker question Bird flu is a dangerous form of influenza with a high fatality rate. Which of the following is true: 1) Bird flu was created accidentally by making flu vaccines in hen eggs. 2) Bird flu is highly infectious in birds, but does not infect humans. 3) Bird flu can infect humans and birds. Humans are infected only through direct contact with infected birds (no human-to-human transmission). 4) Bird flu can infect humans and birds, but there are very few documented cases of human-to-human transmission. Only a few mutations could convert it so that it is easily transmitted between humans. 5) Bird flu can infect humans and birds. There are currently many documented cases of human-to-human transmission. A vaccine against bird flu is already available and is responsible for reducing the number of human-to-human transmissions of bird flu.
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Swine flu has pandemic potential • New strain of swine flu is H1N1, related to 1918 pandemic strain • Spreads efficiently between humans – Killed >100 people in Mexico – Infected >100 people in the US in 37 states. 1 death. – Been found in countries outside of North America – (Statistics for early May 2009) • Novel variant -- similar to H1N1 swine flu strains that infect only pigs, but this H1N1 shows human- to-human transmission. Does not require contact with pigs to be infected.
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Influenza (flu) • A respiratory virus acquired by inhaling – Usually transmitted by coughing, sneezing Virus-containing drops expelled at 100 miles/hour • Each drop has millions of viruses • Need ~10 viruses to get infected – Viruses can survive for several days on telephone, door knobs, etc., but are disrupted by detergents • Cytolytic virus -- kills the cells it infects • Induces the host to produce interferon, which causes flu symptoms •Negative strand RNA virus – Influenza A has 8 negative single strands
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Clicker question Flu viruses must carry what type of enzyme into infected host cells in order to produce new viruses? 1) Reverse transcriptase 2) RNA-dependent DNA polymerase 3) RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 4) Integrase 5) Restriction enzyme 6) None -- RNA can be translated directly to make new viral proteins
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Influenza virus • Enveloped virus • Three surface proteins Hemagglutinin (H) • Neuraminidase (N) • M2 ion channel • Nucleocapsid protein • 8 Negative strand RNAs
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