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Bi1_2009_Lecture17_full

Bi1_2009_Lecture17_full - The Immune System A complex...

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The Immune System A complex system that is responsible for distinguishing us from everything foreign to us, and for protecting us against infections and foreign substances. The immune system works to seek and kill invaders. www.als.net/als101/glossary.asp
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Which, in this list, is not a part of the immune system? 1) Mucous 2) Skin 3) Thymus 4) All of above are parts of the immune system. 5) None of the above are parts of the immune system. Clicker question
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Clicker question Which of the following disorders result from immune system malfunctions? 1) Allergies 2) Diabetes 3) Arthritis 4) Multiple sclerosis 5) All of the above 6) None of the above
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Overview of your immune system First line of defense : Physical barriers that viruses, bacteria must cross skin covers ~2 m 2 Mucous membranes that line digestive, respiratory, reproductive tracts cover ~400 m 2 Second line of defense : Innate immune system (germline-encoded receptors -- no adaptation to specific pathogens) Macrophages (Greek for “big eater”), neutrophils, natural killer (NK) cells Cytokines -- hormone-like proteins that mediate inflammation, Complement proteins Third line of defense (vertebrates only) : Adaptive immune system (adapts to defend against specific pathogens using variable receptors) B cells make antibodies that vary -- can make an antibody specific for any new antigen T cells mediate cellular responses using variable receptors (T cell receptors; TCRs)
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Immune cells and other blood cells made in bone marrow -- all are descendents of self-renewing stem cells p. 4 “How the Immune System Works” by Lauren Sompayrac Make variable antibodies Membrane-bound variable T cell receptors Kill cells that are missing self proteins Phagocyte Phagocyte Note these are adult stem cells, NOT embryonic stem cells.
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Innate Immune System Second line of defense -- works against invaders that breach physical barriers of skin and mucosa “Innate” because shared by all animals (vertebrates and invertebrates)
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Figure 2-1 Three phases of an initial immune response First two phases rely on recognition by germline-encoded receptors of the innate immune system. Third phase uses variable antigen-specific receptors produced as a result of gene segment rearrangements (not germline encoded).
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The innate immune system responds more quickly than adaptive immune system. Why is a quick response important?
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