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Electron Configuration

# Electron Configuration - Electron Configuration Self-Study...

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Electron Configuration: Self-Study Assignment You will have a QUIZ on the attached pages on _____________________ . Your assignment is: READ the pages attached. WORK the examples in the lesson. Complete the pages as homework. To work the examples, use a sheet of paper to cover below the * * * * * line, try the problem on your paper, then check your answer below the * * * * * line. Start early. This assignment will require 2-4 hours of work outside of class.

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Module 23 — Electron Configuration © 2008 ChemReview.Net v.2a Page 569 Module 23 — Electron Configuration Pretests : If you believe that you know the material in a lesson, try two problems at the end of the lesson. If you can do those calculations, you may skip the lesson. * * * * * Lesson 23A: The Multi-Electron Atom Orbitals For the Other Atoms Schr ő dinger’s wave equation predicts mathematically the observed behaviors of the hydrogen atom. However, for atoms with more than one electron, the wave equation provides less exact predictions for how the atom will behave. Why? In the case of hydrogen, one proton and one electron attract. Mathematics is able to precisely model the forces in this “two body” problem, but if a second electron is added to the atom, the situation is more complex. Because the protons are tightly packed into the nucleus, nuclei with more than one proton behave as a single point of positive charge. Multiple electrons will be attracted to those protons, but unlike the case of hydrogen with one electron, two or more electrons also repel each other. How much will they repel? It depends on the types of orbitals that the electrons occupy. At n = 2, an electron in the 2s orbital will on average be closer to the nucleus than an electron in a 2p orbital. This closer 2s electron, by repelling the 2p electron, will act to shield the 2p electron slightly from the attraction of the protons in the nucleus. This means that the 2p orbital will be slightly higher in energy than the 2s orbital. The result of these factors is the wave equation predicts qualitatively , but not exactly, how electrons in atoms other than hydrogen will behave, and the orbital diagram for multi -electron atoms will be different from that of hydrogen. In neutral atoms other than hydrogen, the orbitals have different energy values in each atom, but the orbitals are nearly always arranged in the same order. This means that for all of the elements in the periodic table, there will be only two types of energy level diagrams to learn: one for hydrogen, and one that works in most cases for all of the other atoms. The Orbital Diagram for Multi-Electron Atoms For elements other than hydrogen, these rules apply. 1. The orbital energy level diagram has “clusters” of energy levels. Large energy gaps separate these clusters, but within the clusters, energy levels are close.
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Electron Configuration - Electron Configuration Self-Study...

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