Review_II

Review_II - What is the initial step in producing an...

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Unformatted text preview: What is the initial step in producing an atherosclerotic plaque? Injury What are three differences between a VLDL and an LDL particle? 1. Size 2. Amount cholesterol 3.Apo protein profile 4.Where they are produced LDL What are the different events in the atherosclerotic process? 1. Injury 2. LDL is attracted 3. Attaches to wall, invades 4. White blood cells absorbs LDL particle 5. LDL is oxidized 6. Foam cell forms and grows 7. Cytokines signal liver to produce C-reactive protein 8. Calcium invades injury 9. Red cells begin to clot Minimizing Risk of Atherosclerosis 2. Minimize consumption of dietary cholesterol 3. Minimize consumption of fat 1. Substitute unsaturated fat for saturated fat 4. Eating Margarine won’t help. 5. Maintaining a minimum intake of Vitamin E 6. Eat fish about twice a week 7. Minimize consumption of corn oil 8. Take a baby aspirin a day 9. Exercise 10. Small amount of alcohol each day 11. Minimum required for B 6 , B 12 , folic acid 12. Don’t smoke 13. Relax How do we estimate the energy content of food? Bomb Calorimeter What is a Joule? Measure of the amount of work than can be performed. hy is the energy value of food on a label smaller than the value derived from bomb calorimetry? Carbohydrate Protein Fat Alcohol 4.15 Heat of Combustion 6.93 9.45 5.85 Energy in Nitrogen 1.30 Net Combustion 4.15 6.93 9.45 4.55 Digestibility 0.98 0.95 0.92 1.00 Energy (kcal) 4 7 ? 9 4 Energy (kj) 17 17 38 30 Food Tables How is the Respiratory Quotient derived and what does it mean? C 6 H 12 O 6 684 Kcal = 6 CO 2 + 6 H 2 O + + 6 O 2 /(6 O 2 ) RQ = (6 CO 2 ) = 1.0 Respiratory Quotient Metabolism of Glucose What two factors do we have to know to estimate metabolic rate from indirect calorimetry? 1. Amount of O 2 Consumed or CO 2 Expired 2. RQ What aspect of energy metabolism are we really measuring through indirect calorimetry? ATP production What are the limitations of using indirect calorimetry to estimate energy expenditure?...
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This note was uploaded on 09/26/2010 for the course NS 1150 taught by Professor Levitsky during the Spring '05 term at Cornell.

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Review_II - What is the initial step in producing an...

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