Cognitive Development Chapter 8

Cognitive - Cognitive Development Chapter 8 The retrieval of events and experiences from ones past is called Episodic Memory Its usually contrasted

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Cognitive Development Chapter 8 The retrieval of events and experiences from one’s past is called Episodic Memory . It’s usually contrasted with Semantic Memory , our generic factual knowledge about the world, such as knowledge of concepts and language. Both of these types are forms of Declarative (Explicit) Memory , memories that can be brought consciously and deliberately to mind. Implicit and Procedural Memories are unconscious memories, indexed by changes performance without the involvement of conscious memory content. Skill learning Habit formation Associative learning Habituation Cognitive psychology assumes that memory is a modular system. Semantic, recognition, working, implicit, episodic, and procedural memory are all considered to be distinctive. Experimentally, these different types are usually considered independently of each other. Different types of memory appear to rely on different brain structures. Another important factor for memory research is that children (and adults) do not record events that occur in their lives into their memories verbatim. Children and adults construct memories, and the process of construction depends on prior knowledge and personal interpretation. It also depends on how much sense the memorizer can make of the temporal structure of their experiences. Very young children, for example, may not structure their experience in memorable ways, particularly if they don’t understand particular experiences (being born, death, sexual abuse, etc), or if they don’t have a clear temporal framework. They’re also still acquiring language, and language itself is important for memory. It helps in rehearsing one’s own experiences or in recounting them to someone else, and these verbal narratives help to establish memories more firmly. EARLY MEMORY DEVLOPMENT ***PAPER Even very young infants show good evidence of memory in such paradigms (the types of memory mentioned above). Although habituation and recognition are implicit forms of memory, studies of deferred imitation or elicited imitation are generally accepted measures of the development of declarative memory. In deferred imitation tasks, infants are clearly bringing a past event to mind. For example, when Meltzoff showed that 14 month year olds could retain information about how to pull apart a dumb-bell toy over a 24 hour period, he was demonstrating that the infants could encode the relevant information, store it, and retrieve it. Bauer has used both deferred and elicited imitation to track the early development of declarative memory. She documented important changes in the reliability with which recall can be observed, and in the temporal (time) extent of memory, in very young children. RECALL:
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This note was uploaded on 09/26/2010 for the course PSYC 4524 taught by Professor Col during the Fall '10 term at Northeastern.

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Cognitive - Cognitive Development Chapter 8 The retrieval of events and experiences from ones past is called Episodic Memory Its usually contrasted

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