Cognitive Development Chapter 8
The retrieval of events and experiences from one’s past is called
, our generic factual knowledge about the world, such as
knowledge of concepts and language. Both of these types are forms of
, memories that can be brought consciously and deliberately to mind.
are unconscious memories, indexed by changes
performance without the involvement of conscious memory content.
Cognitive psychology assumes that memory is a modular system.
working, implicit, episodic, and procedural memory are all considered to be distinctive.
Experimentally, these different types are usually considered independently of each other.
Different types of memory appear to rely on different brain structures.
factor for memory research is that children (and adults) do not record events that occur in
their lives into their memories verbatim.
Children and adults
memories, and the
process of construction depends on prior knowledge and personal interpretation. It also
depends on how much sense the memorizer can make of the temporal structure of their
Very young children, for example, may not structure their experience in
memorable ways, particularly if they don’t understand particular experiences (being born,
death, sexual abuse, etc), or if they don’t have a clear temporal framework.
They’re also still
acquiring language, and language itself is important for memory.
It helps in rehearsing one’s
own experiences or in recounting them to someone else, and these verbal narratives help to
establish memories more firmly.
EARLY MEMORY DEVLOPMENT
Even very young infants show good evidence of memory in such paradigms (the types of
memory mentioned above).
Although habituation and recognition are implicit forms of
memory, studies of deferred imitation or elicited imitation are generally accepted measures
of the development of declarative memory.
In deferred imitation tasks, infants are clearly
bringing a past event to mind.
For example, when Meltzoff showed that 14 month year olds
could retain information about how to pull apart a dumb-bell toy over a 24 hour period, he
was demonstrating that the infants could encode the relevant information, store it, and
Bauer has used both deferred and elicited imitation to track the early development
of declarative memory.
She documented important changes in the reliability with which
recall can be observed, and in the temporal (time) extent of memory, in very young children.