Notes for Quiz 1 - Ecology...

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Ecology Study of relationships b/w organisms and environment Study of the distribution and abundance of organisms Study of ecosystems Study of interactions b/w organisms and the environment and how  these interactions determine their distribution and abundance Mechanisms Process of force causing a pattern Cause and Effect in Biology Functional biology o Operation and interaction of structural elements. “How does  something function?”- very simplified approach Evolutionary Biology o The ultimate cause- “Why?”- meaning the historical “How come?”  Or finalistic What for? Organization Individual (species) -> population (area) -> community -> ecosystem Ecosystem Functional unit of variable size composed of living and nonliving parts  that interact System function involves energy and the transfer of energy Trophic Structure Autotroph (trophic level) -> heterotroph  -> hertertroph ect…. . Always loss of energy (heat and metabolism) at every level
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Generally same in the oceans o Species identities and numbers are not Niche Role of an organism within a community Species are ecologically equivalent o occupy same niche fundamental- where a species could live realized niche- where species actually lives generalist- have broad niche specialist- have narrow niche NOT a habitat- just a place not process Community Structure Dominant and rare Species richness, diversity, evenness Biodiversity Higher in the oceans than on land a phylum level 90% of terrestrial species are Arthropoda 90% of marine species spread over 8 phyla Biodiversity Gradients Diversity increases at lower latitudes, in both terrestrial and marine  systems Highest diversity in Indonesian archipelago, decreases outward
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Marine benthos diversity increases with depth to ~2000m, then  decrease No general depth pattern Marine benthic diversity > pelagic diversity Coral reef and deep sea benthic habitats have highest diversity
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Notes for Quiz 1 - Ecology...

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