SUMMARY The goal of Chapter 16 has been to learn the characteristics of macroscopic systems. General Principles Three Phases of Matter Solid Rigid, definite shape. Nearly incompressible. Liquid Molecules loosely held together by molecular bonds, but able to move around. Nearly incompressible. Gas Molecules move freely through space. Compressible. T p SOLID LIQUID GAS Triple point Boiling/ condensation point Melting/ freezing point The different phases exist for different conditions of temperature T and pressure p. The boundaries separating the regions of a phase diagram are lines of phase equilibrium. Any amounts of the two phases can coexist in equilibrium. The triple point is the one value of temperature and pressure at which all three phases can coexist in equilibrium. Important Concepts Ideal-Gas Model • Atoms and molecules are small, hard spheres that travel freely through space except for occasional collisions with each other or the walls. • The model is valid when the density is low and the
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