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Unformatted text preview: PART 1 (a) Drinking water standards are regulations that EPA sets to control the level of contaminants in the nation's drinking water. (b) A National Primary Drinking Water Regulation, NPDWR or primary standard, is a legally enforceable standard that applies to public water systems. Primary standards protect drinking water quality by limiting the levels of specific contaminants that can adversely affect public health and are known or anticipated to occur in water. (c) The National Secondary Drinking Water Regulations are non-enforceable guidelines. They are established as guidelines to assist public water systems in managing their drinking water for aesthetic considerations, such as taste, color, and odor. These contaminants are not considered to present a risk to human health at the secondary maximum contaminant level (SMCL). (d) The drinking water CCL is the primary source of priority contaminants for which EPA collects data to inform decisions about whether regulations are needed. The contaminants on the list are known or anticipated to occur in public water systems. However, they are currently unregulated by existing national primary drinking water regulations. (e) According to Drinking Water Standard Setting: Question and Answer Primer (EPA811-K-94-001, November 1994), "An MCLG is a non- enforceable goal derived solely from health effects data. An MCL is the enforceable level set as closely as possible to the MCLG, taking technology and cost data into account." (f) A required process intended to reduce the level of a contaminant in drinking water. PART 2 Contaminant MCL (units) or TT 1 Health Effects Contaminant Sources Category Arsenic 0.010 (mg/l) Skin damage or problems with circulatory systems, and may have increased risk of getting cancer Erosion of natural deposits; runoff from orchards, runoff from glass & electronics production wastes Inorganic Chemical Cadmium 0.005 (mg/l) Kidney damage Corrosion of galvanized pipes; erosion of natural deposits; discharge from metal refineries; runoff from waste batteries and paints Inorganic Chemical Copper TT 2 Short term exposure: Gastrointestinal distress Long term exposure: Liver or kidney damage Corrosion of household plumbing systems; erosion of natural deposits Inorganic Chemical Fluoride 4.0 (mg/l) Bone disease (pain and tenderness of the bones); Children may get mottled teeth Water additive which promotes strong teeth; erosion of natural deposits; discharge from fertilizer and aluminum Inorganic Chemical 1 1 Definitions: Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) - The highest level of a contaminant that is allowed in drinking water. MCLs are set as close to MCLGs as feasible using the best available treatment technology and taking cost into consideration. MCLs are enforceable standards....
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This note was uploaded on 09/26/2010 for the course GEOGRAPHY 162A taught by Professor Loaiciga during the Spring '10 term at UCSB.
- Spring '10