ch-2-3502 - CHAPTER 2 PROBABILITY Probability is used in...

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CHAPTER 2 z PROBABILITY Probability is used in inference statistics as a tool to make statement for population from sample information. Experiment is a process for generating observations Sample space is all possible outcomes of an experiment. Event is a collection of one or some outcomes from sample space, usually denoted by a capital letter. – Simple Event: The event that cannot decomposed. Venn Diagram is used to show the result of an experiment, for this reason all simple event show in a box by a point. Tree Diagram is used when the experiment generated in several steps. Some Relations Between Events Union: The union of events A and B , denoted by A B is the event that contains all outcomes that are either in A or B or both . Intersection: The intersection of events A and B , denoted by A B is the event that contains all outcomes that are in both A and B . Complement: The complement of an event A , denoted by A 0 is the event that contains all outcomes in sample space S but not in A . Two events are mutually exclusive or disjoint , if they don’t have any common out- come, or when one event occurs, the other cannot, and vice versa. Calculating Probability: P ( A ) is a measure of the chance that A will occur. Calculating Probability by Using Relative Frequency: P ( A ) = lim n →∞ relative frequency = lim n →∞ frequency n Frequency is the number of times that event A occurred.
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