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PROBABILITY
Probability is used in inference statistics as a tool to make statement for population from
sample information.
•
Experiment
is a process for generating observations
•
Sample space
is all possible outcomes of an experiment.
•
Event
is a collection of one or some outcomes from sample space, usually denoted by
a capital letter.
– Simple Event:
The event that cannot decomposed.
•
Venn Diagram
is used to show the result of an experiment, for this reason all simple
event show in a box by a point.
•
Tree Diagram
is used when the experiment generated in several steps.
±
Some Relations Between Events
•
Union:
The union of events
A
and
B
, denoted by
A
∪
B
is the event that contains all
outcomes that are
either in
A
or
B
or both
.
•
Intersection:
The intersection of events
A
and
B
, denoted by
A
∩
B
is the event that
contains all outcomes that are in
both
A
and
B
.
•
Complement:
The complement of an event
A
, denoted by
A
0
is the event that contains
all outcomes
in sample space
S
but not in
A
.
²
Two events are
mutually exclusive
or
disjoint
, if they don’t have any common out
come, or when one event occurs, the other cannot, and vice versa.
±
Calculating Probability:
P
(
A
) is a measure of the chance that
A
will occur.
•
Calculating Probability by Using Relative Frequency:
P
(
A
) = lim
n
→∞
relative frequency = lim
n
→∞
frequency
n
Frequency
is the number of times that event
A
occurred.
n
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 Spring '09
 JHONBRAN

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