Chapter 10 Notes

Chapter 10 Notes - Chapter 10: Liquids and Solids Chapter...

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Chapter 10: Liquids and Solids Chapter 10: Liquids and Solids *Liquids and solids show many similarities and are strikingly different from their gaseous state. 10.1 Intermolecular Forces Intermolecular Forces- weak interactions between molecules composed of covalent and ionic bondings. Dipole-dipole attractions- molecules with dipole moments line up with one another electrostatically where the positive and negative ends are close to each other Strong Dipoles: H-N *increase in polarity going down from H-N to H-O H-F *have very strong dipole-dipole interactions called hydrogen bonding H-O London dispersion forces- forces that exist among noble gases and non-polar molecules; an instantaneous pole that occurs accidentally in an atom and can induce a similar dipole in a neighboring atom (weak and short-lived). *London dispersion forces increase as the size of the atom increases (increase chance of dipolar distribution). Example: Alkanes 10.2 The Liquid State Surface tension- the resistance of a liquid to an increase in its surface area (polar molecules tend to have high surface tension) Capillary action- the spontaneous rising of a liquid in a narrow tube due to cohesive (intermolecular forces) and adhesive (attractive forces) forces (adhesive > cohesive) Viscosity- a measure of a liquid’s resistance to flow; molecular complexity and polarity has to do with higher viscosity 10.3 An Introduction to Structures and Types of Solids Categories of Solids: Crystalline solids- highly regular arrangements of their components Amorphous solids- considerable disorder in their structures Lattice- 3-dimensional system of points where each represents the position of the components (atoms, ions, molecules) that makes up the crystal Unit cell- repeating unit of the lattice; x-ray diffraction is commonly used to determine the crystalline structure of solids
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This note was uploaded on 09/27/2010 for the course CHEM 210 taught by Professor Mcomber during the Spring '10 term at Skyline College.

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Chapter 10 Notes - Chapter 10: Liquids and Solids Chapter...

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