Chapter 9 Notes

Chapter 9 Notes - Chapter 9 Covalent Bonding: Orbitals 9.1...

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Chapter 9 – Covalent Bonding: Orbitals 9.1 Hybridization and Localized Electron Model sp³ Hybridization - atomic orbitals are different than their “native form” ex. CH 4 – if this weren’t the case, then there would be two different types of C-H bonds. Bond angles would be perpendicular to one another. - The mixing of “native” atomic orbitals to form special orbitals for bonding is called hybridization. - The sp³ orbitals are formed by the fusion of one s-orbital and 3 p-orbitals (sp³ hybridization or sp³ hybridized) - These orbitals are arranged in a tetrahedral arrangement (requires sp³ hybridization, 109.5 º bond angles, and 4 effective bonds Sample 9.1 Describe the bonding in the ammonia molecule using the localized electron model. Solution The Lewis structure for NH 3 is The four electron pairs around the nitrogen atom require a tetrahedral arrangement to minimize repulsions. We have seen that a tetrahedral set of sp 3 hybrid orbitals is obtained by combining the 2s and three 2p orbitals. In the NH 3 molecule three of the sp 3 orbitals are used to form bonds to the three hydrogen atoms, and the fourth sp 3 orbital holds the lone pair. sp² Hybridization - required for atoms that have trigonal planar arrangements (has 120º bond angles, 3 effective bonds) 1 s and 2 p-orbitals fuse to become sp² hybridized leaving 1 p unhybridized
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ex. C 2 H 4 (ethylene) - electrons centered between the bonded atoms are called a σ (sigma) covalent bond - a π (pi) covalent bond is made up of electrons which are shared between two parallel p-orbitals - a double bond is made up of a σ and a π bond sp Hybridization sp hybridization involves 1 s-orbital and 1 p-orbital (2 effective pairs of electrons, 180º bond angle [linear]) ex. CO 2 dsp³ Hybridization involves the hybridization of 1 d-orbital, one 1 s-orbital, and 3 p-orbitals (5 effective pairs of electrons, trigonal biplanar: 90° and 120° bond angles) ex. PCl 5 d²sp³ Hybridization - involves the hybridization of 2 d-orbitals, 1 s-orbital, and 3 p-orbitals ( 6 effective pairs of electrons, octahedral: 90° bond angles) ex. SF 6
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Chapter 9 Notes - Chapter 9 Covalent Bonding: Orbitals 9.1...

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