Chapter 8 notes

Chapter 8 notes - Chapter 8 Bonding: General Concepts 8.1...

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Chapter 8 Bonding: General Concepts 8.1 Types of Chemical Bonds – Bond energies – energy required to break a bond Ionic bonding – bonding between two ions – bonding forces that result from electrostatic attractions between adjacent oppositely charged atoms Ionic compound – formed when an atom that loses electrons easily (metals) reacts with an atom that has a high affinity for electrons (non-metals) Energy of interaction between pairs of ions can be calculated with Coulomb’s Law Bond length – distance of a bond where the energy is minimal Covalent bonding – electrons are shared between nuclei Polar covalent bonds – unequal sharing of electrons ex. H-F Slightly negative (lowercase delta) – used to indicate fractional charge 8.2 Electronegativity – Electronegativity – the ability of an atom in a molecule to attract shared electrons to itself Determining electro negativity – compare the measured H-X bond energy with “expected” bond energy, which is an average of H-H, and X-X bond energies H-H b.e. – X-X b.e. = 2 Electro negativity generally increases from left to right and decreases going down on the periodic table Sample Exercise 8.1 Order the following bonds according to polarity: H-H, O-H, Cl-H, S-H, and F-H. Solution: Refer to figure 8.3. The polarity of the bond increases as the difference in electronegativity increases. The information from the table gives the following results: H-H<S-H<Cl-H<O-H<F-H 8.3 Bond Polarity and Dipole Moments Dipolar molecules – Molecules that have a center of positive charge and a center of
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Chapter 8 notes - Chapter 8 Bonding: General Concepts 8.1...

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