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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 2 Chapter 2 Chapter 2 Chapter 2 & Atoms, Molecules, and Ions Atoms, Molecules, and Ions Atoms, Molecules, and Ions Atoms, Molecules, and Ions 2.1 The Earth History of Chemistry 400 B.C. Democritus- atomos to 1600’s Alchemy- cheap metals into gold 1600’s Robert Boyle- behavior of gases combustion involved 1700’s Georg Stahl- “phlogiston” 2.2 Fundamental Chemical Laws Mid 1700’s Antoine Lavoisier - law of conservation of mass 1800’s Joseph Proust- law of definite proportion - compounds always are the same proportion of elements John Dalton- law of multiple proportion -when a series of compounds are formed by two elements, the mass ratios for the 2 nd element that combines with 1 gram of the first can be reduced to small whole numbers. 2.3 Dalton’s Atomic Theory Dalton presented his theory of atoms in 1808: 1. Each element is made up of atoms. 2. Atoms of the same element are identical. 3. Compounds are formed when atoms combine and each compound has the same relative number and types of atoms. same relative number and types of atoms....
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