Chapter3 - 1 Example A Chemical Reaction Hydrogen Oxygen...

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1 Example: A Chemical Reaction Hydrogen + Oxygen Water H 2 + O 2 H 2 O + - Note there is not enough hydrogen to react with oxygen - It is necessary to “balance” equation. + 2 H 2 + O 2 2 H 2 O (balanced equation) CONSERVATION OF MASS During a chemical reaction, matter is neither created or destroyed. - i. e. the number of atoms of each element remains constant BALANCING CHEMICAL EQUATIONS - ensures # of reactant atoms = # of product atoms C 2 H 4 + O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O Cu + S 8 Cu 2 S Fe 2 O 3 + C Fe + CO 2 Sc 2 O 3 + H 2 O Sc(OH) 3 CH 3 NH 2 + O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O + N 2 - Sometimes it is more convenient to balance groups of atoms (polyatomic ions) than individual atoms. AgNO 3 + CaCl 2 Ca(NO 3 ) 2 + AgCl - Balance NO 3 - ions rather than N and O atoms. Ba(ClO 4 ) 2 + Na 2 SO 4 BaSO 4 + NaClO 4 - Balance ClO 4 - and SO 4 2- ions
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2 GENERAL TYPES OF REACTIONS 1) Combination A + B C - two or more substances react two form a single substance a) formation reactions elements compound 4 Fe (s) + 3 O 2 (g) 2 Fe 2 O 3 (s) 8 C (s) + 9 H 2 (g) C 8 H 18 (l) b) hydration reactions - addition of water CaO (s) + H 2 O (l) Ca(OH) 2 (s) P 2 O 5 (s) + 3 H 2 O (l) 2 H 3 PO 4 (aq) 2) Combustion - combination with O 2 (as in burning fuel) - products are CO 2 , H 2 O and N 2 C 8 H 18 (l) + 17 O 2 (g) 8 CO 2 (g) + 9 H 2 O (g) 4 CH 3 NH 2 (l) + 9 O 2 (g) 4 CO 2 (g) + 10 H 2 O (g) + 2 N 2 (g) 3) Decomposition A B + C - one substance decomposing into two or more substances a) decomposition of carbonates CaCO 3 (s) CaO (s) + CO 2 (g) b) decomposition of chlorates 2 LiClO 3 (s) 2 LiCl (s) + 3 O 2 (g) c) many others 4) Single replacement reactions - when a metal ion in a compound is replaced with another metal ion SnSO 4 (aq) + Ni (s) NiSO 4 (aq) + Sn (s) 3 AgNO 3 (aq) + Cr (s) Cr(NO 3 ) 3 (aq) + 3 Ag (s) 5) Metathesis (double replacement) reactions - cations and anions in two ionic compounds switch places Na 2 SO 4 (aq) + Ba(C 2 H 3 O 2 ) 2 (aq) BaSO 4 (s) + 2 NaC 2 H 3 O 2 (aq) PbClO 3 (aq) + 2 KCl (aq) PbCl 2 (s) + 2 KClO 3 (aq)
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3 ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR MASSES Average Atomic Mass - If element has more than one naturally occurring isotope, atomic mass is an average of the mass of the isotopes. - Average is performed accounting for the relative natural abundance of each isotope. Example:
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Chapter3 - 1 Example A Chemical Reaction Hydrogen Oxygen...

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