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Chapter1 - 1 MATTER States of Matter Gas no fixed volume or...

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1 MATTER States of Matter Gas - no fixed volume or shape - easily compressed or expanded Examples: air, neon, acetylene Liquid - has fixed volume - shape of liquid is shape of container - not easily compressed Examples: water, gasoline, blood Solid - has fixed volume and shape - not easily compressed Examples: salt, steel, cotton CLASSIFICATIONS OF MATTER I. Homogeneous – same composition throughout sample A. Pure substances 1. Elements - cannot be decomposed into simpler substances - building blocks of all matter - only 115 elements, listed in periodic table - individual constituents are atoms Examples: oxygen, iron, helium 2. Compounds - made of two or more elements - millions of compounds - individual constituents are molecules or ions - atoms (elements) bind together to form molecules (compounds) Examples: sugar, water, rust B. Solutions - perfect blending of two or more pure substances with each other - no region of matter has only one type of molecule - examples a) air N 2 in O 2 b) sea water salt in water c) brass Copper (Cu) in Zinc (Zn) d) soda pop CO 2 and sugar in water e) cocktail alcohol dissolved in water f) millions of others possible
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2 II. Heterogeneous -must be mixture -properties are different throughout sample -examples a) sand b) wood c) meat d) potato e) butter PROPERTIES OF MATTER Physical properties – do not change identity of substance when measured intensive properties – independent of amount of substance – color, density, melting point, temperature extensive properties – dependent on amount of substance – mass, volume, energy Chemical properties – how substance reacts with other substances Example: Consider how wood changes when we mix it with other substances - When we heat it with oxygen (burning), the wood emits smoke (carbon dioxide, water, etc.) and leaves behind charcoal (carbon) and ash.
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