Chapter 7.2 - 1 PROPERTIES OF THE ELEMENTS AND PERIODICITY...

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1 PROPERTIES OF THE ELEMENTS AND PERIODICITY - Most chemical properties are dependent of structure of valence electrons. - Elements in a single group (column) have similar electronic structures. - Therefore elements in a single group have similar chemical properties. IONIC CHARGE - Atoms in same group tend to have same ionic charge. - alkali metals 1+ - alkaline earth metals 2+ - chalcogens 2- - halogens 1- - Why does this pattern exist?? PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRONIC CONFIGURATION STABILITY - Electronic configurations with filled shells are most stable. - Electronic configurations with filled subshells are stable. - Electronic configurations with half-filled subshells are slightly stable. - Filled shells and subshells “shield” or “screen” nuclear charge from valence electrons. - Principles of stable electronic configuration are very important in explaining chemical properties. REEXAMINING IONIC CHARGE Alkali Metals - valence electron is s electron - atom becomes ion by losing electron to have filled shell Example Na: 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 1 Na + : 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 (filled shell) Alkaline Earth Metals - valence electrons are electrons - atom becomes ion by losing two electrons to have filled shell Ca: 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 Ca 2+ 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 Halogens p - atom becomes ion by gaining F: 1s 2 2s 2 2p 5 F - : 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6
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2 Chalcogens - valence electrons are p
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Chapter 7.2 - 1 PROPERTIES OF THE ELEMENTS AND PERIODICITY...

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