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Anatomy & Physiology Muscle Notes

Anatomy & Physiology Muscle Notes - 1 a ....

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1. Be able to identify which types of muscles are: a. Striated or Nonstriated Skeletal muscle tissue and cardiac muscle tissue are striated. Smooth muscle tissue is  nostriated. b. Voluntary or Involuntary Skeletal muscle tissue is voluntary. Cardiac muscle tissue and smooth muscle tissues are both  involuntary.  2. Know the four properties of muscle tissue and what each one means.  Muscle tissue has four special properties that enable it to function and contribute to homeostasis:  1. Electrical excitability, a property of both muscle and nerve cells, is the ability to respond to  certain stimuli by producing electrical signals such as action potentials. For muscle cells, two  main types of stimuli trigger action potentials. One is autorhythmic electrical signals arising in the  muscle tissue itself, such as occurs in the heart’s pacemaker. The other is chemical stimuli, such  as neurotransmitters released by neurons, hormones distributed by the blood, or even local  changes in pH.  2. Contractility is the ability of muscle tissue to contract forcefully when stimulated by an action  potential. When muscle contracts, it generates tension (force of contraction) while pulling on its 
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own attachment points. In an isometric contraction, the muscle develops tension but does not  shorten. An example would be holding a book in an outstretched hand. In an isotonic contraction,  the tension developed by the muscle remains almost constant while the muscle shortens. An  example would be lifting a book off the table.  3. Extensibility is the ability of muscle to stretch without being damaged. Extensibility allows a  muscle to contract forcefully even if it is already stretched. Normally, smooth muscle is subject to  the greatest amount of stretching (ex. Stomach), cardiac a medium amount of stretching (heart),  and the stretch on skeletal muscle remains almost constant.  4.   Elasticity   is   the   ability   of   muscle   tissue   to   return   to   its   original   length   and   shape   after  contraction or extension.  3. Identify the different connective tissue coverings of muscle and where they are  located. (Endomysium, perimysium & epimysium) Three layers of connective tissue extend from the deep fascia to further protect and strengthen  skeletal muscle. The outermost layer, encircling the whole muscle, is the epimysium. Perimysium  surrounds groups of 10 to 100 or more individual muscle fibers, separating them into bundles  called fascicles. Epimysium and perimysium are dense irregular connective tissue. Penetrating  the   interior   of   each   fascicle   and   separating   individual   muscle   fibers   from   one   another   is  endomysium, a thin sheath of areolar connective tissue. 
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