lect2 - GG325 - GEOCHEMISTRY week 1: lecture 2 Lecture 2...

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1 GG325 L2, F2009 Lecture 2 General Chemistry Review Pease read chapter 1 and 2 of McSween et al. for this week • Periodic table & electronic configurations. • Periodic properties: ionic radius, electron negativity, 1st ionization potential • Covalent & ionic bonding • Hybridization and molecular orbitals GG325 L2, F2009 Background-Elements and Atoms These are all terms you should already be familiar with: atom - smallest sub-divisible unit of matter that retains unique chemical properties. Composed of electrons, protons and neutrons. element - a fundamental building block of matter defined by a specific number of protons in an atomic nucleus. All atoms of an element have the same number of protons. isotope - different "flavors" of an element that have different numbers of neutrons in their nucleus (thus, they have different atomic masses). radioactive isotope - isotope that decays away radioactively due to an unstable nuclear configuration. stable isotope - one that does not decay radioactively. molecule - a multi-atom material held together by chemical bonds. compound - a multi-element molecule. ion - an atom or molecule that has gained or lost one or more valence or bonding electrons, giving it electronic charge. valence - the outermost electron shell of an atom. GG325 -- GEOCHEMISTRY week 1 : lecture 2
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2 GG325 L2, F2009 The Periodic Chart ala Ken The chemical elements display "periodic" (repeatable) properties governed by valence electron configurations. The Periodic Chart is a 2d map of the elements that reflects their periodic behavior. There are many ways to draw the Chart but all are set up to classify like-chemistry elements. If you can read the map you will be able to predict an element's behavior in a range of environments. GG325 L2, F2009 Each element is defined by the number of protons in the nucleus, which in turn determines the number of electrons in a neutral atom. Electronic configuration determines chemical reactivity . GG325 -- GEOCHEMISTRY week 1 : lecture 2
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3 GG325 L2, F2009 The importance of electrons Elements that form the columns of the periodic table behave similarly largely because they have similar electron configurations . Recall that outer most electrons are the most important in chemistry because these are more readily lost and/or shared. In contrast, inner electrons are tightly bound to the nucleus by electrostatic forces.
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This note was uploaded on 09/27/2010 for the course GG GG325 taught by Professor Ronjacobs during the Winter '10 term at Hawaii.

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lect2 - GG325 - GEOCHEMISTRY week 1: lecture 2 Lecture 2...

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