Genetics, Prenatal Development, Child Birth, & Newborn Characteristics_Outline

Genetics, Prenatal Development, Child Birth, & Newborn Characteristics_Outline

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Click to edit Master subtitle style 9/28/10 Prenatal & Neonatal development PSY 336
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9/28/10 Biological Foundations of Development: Contexts of
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9/28/10 Genes & Chromosomes ± Genome : a person’s complete set of  DNA ± Gene : the fundamental physical unit of  heredity ± DNA : deoxyribonucleic acid; carries  biochemical instructions involved in  formation and functioning of an organism
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9/28/10 Genes to Proteins
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9/28/10 Genes & Chromosomes Genotype : the genetic makeup of the individual Phenotype : the observable expression of genotype Polygenetic : Multiple gene-pairs influence the trait (height, weight, intelligence)
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9/28/10  After fertilization of ova  (now a zygote), usually have  46 chromosomes (1/2 from  each parent).   Females: XX  Males: XY Papella, Human Development, 7e  (1998)
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9/28/10 Genes & Chromosomes Each autosomal gene (first 22 pairs of chromosomes) has two copies called alleles (one from each parent) Dominant gene: expressed in phenotype Recessive gene: not exhibited heterozyg ous (Bb) homozygou s (BB) or (bb)
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9/28/10 Environment & Phenotype Interactions Norm of reaction : all phenotypes that could be expressed from a given genotype in relation to all environments in which is could survive.
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9/28/10 Heritability Heritability : statistical estimate of the proportion of measured variance on a trait that is attributable to genetic differences ± in North America, heritability for height is ~90% ± 90% of Variation in peoples height is result of genetic factors
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9/28/10 Genetic & Chromosomal Abnormalities 3-5% of newborns have some type of genetic or chromosomal abnormality ± Genetic disorders ° flaws in one or more genes ± Phenylketonuria (PKU) ± Chromosomal abnormalities born with missing/extra chromosome ± Down Syndrome
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9/28/10 Down Syndrome: Trisomy 21 1 out of every 733 births 90% have 47 chromosomes (extra #21) maternal age big risk factor Symptoms Certain physical characteristics Heart & eye defects, immunological problems Mental retardation & impaired Language skills 50% develop vision/hearing problems as well as behavior disorders
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9/28/10 Genetic Technology Ultrasound : video images of fetus and internal organs are produced from echoes of sound waves Chorionic Villus Sampling (CVC): cells from chorionic membrane (protective cells surrounding fetus) removed ± Can detect genetic defects 9-12 weeks after conception Amniocentesis : amniotic fluid removed from sac surrounding fetus Done later in pregnancy ~ 15-19 weeks
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9/28/10 PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT Overview: ± Stages of Prenatal Development ± Fetal Experience
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9/28/10 Overcoming Fertility ~8.5% of couples experience infertility ~50 due to complications related to mother; 20% related to father; 30% attributed to both or unknown $3 billion spent each year on overcoming infertility 14% of births in US from assisted production in-vitro fertilization (IVF) most common form of assisted reproduction
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9/28/10 Prenatal Development
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Genetics, Prenatal Development, Child Birth, & Newborn Characteristics_Outline

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