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# Appendix 19 - Appendix 19 A19.1 t-estimator of x t/2 s n C...

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Appendix 19 A19.1 t-estimator of µ n s t x 2 / α ± 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 A B C D t-Estimate: Mean Plastic bags Mean 1495 Standard Deviation 404 LCL 1451 UCL 1539 Estimate of the total number of plastic bags LCL = 112 million(1451) = 162.512 billion UCL = 112 million(1539) = 172.368 billion A19.2 Spearman rank correlation coefficient test H 0 : ρ S = 0 H 1 : ρ S > 0 1 n r z S - = 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D Spearman Rank Correlation Satisfaction and Time Spearman Rank Correlation 0.541 z Stat 8.984 P(Z<=z) one tail 0 z Critical one tail 1.6449 P(Z<=z) two tail 0 z Critical two tail 1.96 z = 8.98; p-value = 0. There is enough evidence to infer that those who do more research are more satisfied with their choice. A19.3 Sign test H 0 : The location of the two populations are the same H 1 : The location of population 1 is to the right of the location of population2 n 5 . n 5 . x z - = 145

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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 A B C D E Sign Test Difference Cork rate - Metal rate Positive Differences 75 Negative Differences 27 Zero Differences 28 z Stat 4.75 P(Z<=z) one-tail 0 z Critical one-tail 1.6449 P(Z<=z) two-tail 0 z Critical two-tail 1.96 z = 4.75; p-value = 0. There is sufficient evidence to indicate that wine bottled with a screw cap is perceived to be inferior. A19.4 Histograms (not shown) are approximately bell shaped Unequal-variances t-test of 2 1 μ - μ ) ( : H 2 1 0 μ - μ = 0 ) ( : H 2 1 1 μ - μ < 0 + μ - μ - - = 2 2 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 n s n s ) ( ) x x ( t 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 A B C t-Test: Two-Sample Assuming Unequal Variances British American Mean 7137 9304 Variance 38051 110151 Observations 28 33 Hypothesized Mean Difference 0 df 53 t Stat -31.61 P(T<=t) one-tail 2.26E-36 t Critical one-tail 1.6741 P(T<=t) two-tail 4.51E-36 t Critical two-tail 2.0057 t = −31.61; p-value = 0. There is overwhelming evidence to conclude that the total distance of American golf courses is greater than that of British courses. A19.5 Spearman rank correlation coefficient test H 0 : ρ S = 0 146
H 1 : ρ S > 0 1 n r z S - = 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D Spearman Rank Correlation Parking and Visits Spearman Rank Correlation 0.3194 z Stat 4.47 P(Z<=z) one tail 0 z Critical one tail 1.6449 P(Z<=z) two tail 0 z Critical two tail 1.96 z = 4.47; p-value = 0. There is enough evidence to infer that the ratings of parking and the number of visits is positively related. Thus, there is enough evidence to conclude that the problem of parking is one reason for the decline in downtown shopping. A19.6 t-test of ρ or β 1 ρ : H 0 = 0 0 : H 1 ρ 2 r 1 2 n r t - - = 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 A B Correlation Visits and Income Pearson Coefficient of Correlation 0.1747 t Stat 2.48 df 195 P(T<=t) one tail 0.0071 t Critical one tail 1.6527 P(T<=t) two tail 0.0142 t Critical two tail 1.9722 t = 2.48; p-value = .0071. There is enough evidence to infer that more affluent people shop more downtown than poorer people. A19.7 Histograms of Groups 1 and 2: Interpersonal 147

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0 50 100 0 2 4 6 8 10 F req u en c y Scores Histogram: Group 1 Interpersonal 0 50 100 0 2 4 6 8 10 F req u en c y Scores Histogram: Group2 Interpersonal The histograms indicate that the scores are extremely nonnormal.
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Appendix 19 - Appendix 19 A19.1 t-estimator of x t/2 s n C...

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