Israel 1-12-10

Israel 1-12-10 - Israel 1-12-10 Theodore Herzl Founder of...

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Israel 1-12-10 The jews are emancipated with the rise of communism, socialism, etc. A result of 19 th century optimism and French revolution. There is a paradoxical development… get the rise of secularism. Jews are emancipated, start doing well in liberal countries. Things start to look good… there is a rise of nationalism. The Jews have trouble fitting in countries like germany, Italy, france. This result in the rise of something new… its not okay to hate jews for religious affiliation… result in the rise of racialism. The idea that jews are racially different. With Christian anti Semitism, a jew can convert, but with racialism, you cant convert. Most Jews hope that the trend of racialism with disappear and that they would be able to assimilate. The Tsar that was open to jews is assisnated, new tsar comes, jews are mass murdered. Ethnic cleansing… Russia was rough. The jews that were going to universities in European countires turn to protozionism. They leave the universities… In Russia, jews flee. Mass migration to the US in the 1880s. they go to other western countries and Palestine. You have liberalizing trends, development of protozionism in Russia. Everything changes in the 1890s because of Theodore Herzl Theodore Herzl Founder of modern Zionism A Jew from Vienna, he was assimilated. A writer, wrote plays and journalist. Didn’t know a whole lot about judism… goes to france when the dreyfus affair happens (1894-1906) Dreyfus is a French jewish captain accused of spying for germans. Liberals in France are saying hes framed for being a jew. The army says no hes guilty, this tore France apart. The country became politically divided. Herzl goes to france and is astonished by the mobs who say to kill the jews.
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Herzl was shocked by france’s behavior, the most liberal and progressive countr in the world at the time. He was shocked that even if the masses are shouting for the death of jews and felt that something should be done. Herzl came to believe that assimilation wouldn’t work because wherever the jew was, he would be hated and isolated. Wherever the jew moves to, he would be hated. What was his explanation? This was a period of nationalism… his thought and belief is that because the jews didn’t have their own nation A nation would allow them to defend themselves and no longer be a minority Developed the idea that they should return to their homeland and in doing so they would become whole people and be respected. First Zionist Congress (1897)
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Israel 1-12-10 - Israel 1-12-10 Theodore Herzl Founder of...

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