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1aa3-2010-ch17-draft_h_2

1aa3-2010-ch17-draft_h_2 - CHEM 1AA3 Intro Chemistry II...

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1 Chem 1AA3 CHEM 1AA3: Intro. Chemistry II Acid-Base Chemistry C h.17: Additional Aspects of Acid-Base Equilibria 2 Chem 1AA3 Acid-Base Chemistry: Review (Ch 16) Bronsted-Lowry Theory Refer to Ch. 16-2, pg 664-667- note arrows go in wrong direction in text HCl (aq) + H 2 O (l) Æ Cl - (aq) + H 3 O + (aq) Acid Conjugate Base Base Conjugate Acid NH 3 (aq) + H 2 O (l) NH 4 + (aq) + OH - (aq) acid = H + donor, base = H + acceptor acid/base reactants & conjugate acid/base products: • H 2 O is an amphoteric species (behaves as both an acid or a base) Base Conjugate Acid Acid Conjugate Base
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3 Chem 1AA3 You should know 6 strong acids . Which of the following is not a strong acid? (a) HNO 3 (b) HF (c) HCl (d) HBr (e) HI (f) HClO 4 (g) H 2 SO 4 (Strong acid: p K a < 1) Diagnostic iClicker Question HS Refer to Ch 16-4, pg 672-673 4 Chem 1AA3 You should know 5 types of strong base . Which of the following is not a strong base? (a) Group I hydroxides, alkoxides (e.g., NaOH, KOH, MeO - Na + etc.) (b) Group II hydroxides (e.g., Mg(OH) 2 , Ca(OH) 2 , many are poorly soluble) (c) hydride, H - (e.g., KH) (d) oxides, O 2- (e.g., CaO, Li 2 O) (e) amines (e.g., NH 3 ) (Strong base: p K b < 1) Diagnostic iClicker Question HS Refer to Ch 16-4, pg 672-673
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5 Chem 1AA3 Review: Strong Acids/Bases vs. Weak Refer to Ch 16-4, pg 672-673 Concept Check: (a) What is the difference between a strong acid (or base) and a weak acid (or base)? (b) Give an example of: a weak acid, a weak base. (c) How do you identify whether an acid or base is weak? 6 Chem 1AA3 Review: Strong Acids/Bases vs. Weak Refer to Ch 16-5, pg 674-681 Concept check: (a) Weak acids/bases undergo partial ionization in water; Strong acids/bases undergo ~ complete ionization in water (b) Weak acids: Weak bases: Carboxylic acids, HF, H 2 CO 3 , H 2 SO 3 , HClO 2 , … Amines, NH 3 , CO 3 2- , …
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7 Chem 1AA3 Review: Strong Acids/Bases vs. Weak Concept check: (c) Extent of ionization described by K a or K b - weak acid: K a < 1 or p K a > 1 - weak base: K b < 1 or p K b > 1 Ibuprofen, pK a 4.4, weak acid O OH 8 Chem 1AA3 Formative iClicker question #12 Which of the following is a weak Brønsted acid? (a) HClO 2 (b) CH 3 CH 2 CO 2 - K + (c) CH 3 O - K + (d) (C 6 H 5 CO) 2 O (e) BF 3 PH
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9 Chem 1AA3 Formative iClicker question #12 Which of the following is a weak Brønsted base? (a) H 3 PO 4 (b) CH 3 CH 2 CO 2 - K + (c) CH 3 O - K + (d) (C 6 H 5 CO) 2 O (e) BF 3 PB 10 Chem 1AA3 Formative iClicker question #12 Which of the following is a strong Brønsted base? (a) HClO 2 (b) CH 3 CH 2 CO 2 - K + (c) CH 3 O - K + (d) C 6 H 5 CO 2 H (e) BF 3 JV
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11 Chem 1AA3 Formative iClicker question #12 Which of the following is a weak Brønsted acid? (a) H 2 SO 4 (b) CH 3 CH 2 CO 2 - K + (c) CH 3 O - K + (d) C 6 H 5 CO 2 H (e) BF 3 HS 12 Chem 1AA3 Review: Acid-Base Equilibrium: Weak Acid & K a Equilibrium favours reverse process: Acidity of H 3 O + > CH 3 COOH Basicity of CH 3 COO - > H 2 O Acid Base Conjugate Base Conjugate Acid CH 3 COOH (aq) + H 2 O (l) CH 3 COO - (aq) + H 3 O + (aq) K a 5 3 3 3 10 8 . 1 COOH] [CH ] O ][H COO [CH + × = = a K Refer to Ch 16-5, pg 674-681
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13 Chem 1AA3 Review: Acid-Base Equilibrium: Weak Base & K b Acid Base Conjugate Base Conjugate Acid NH 3 (aq) + H 2 O (l) NH 4 + (aq) + OH - (aq) Equilibrium favours reverse process: Basicity of OH - > NH 3 Acidity of NH 4 + > H 2 O 5 3 4 10 8 1 ]
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