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ESS_40_Lec_2_2009

ESS_40_Lec_2_2009 - Lecture 2(Chps 2-3 Body Fluid...

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1 1 Lecture 2 (Chps 2-3) Cell Structure and Genetic Control, Metabolic Pathways, and Metabolism Body Fluid Compartments 2 Body-Fluid Compartments Body has intracellular & extracellular compartments Intracellular is inside cells Extracellular is outside cells Separated by cell’s outer membrane Extracellular is composed of blood plasma & interstitial fluid Plasma Membrane 4
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2 Cell Is the basic unit of structure & function in body Is a highly organized molecular factory Has 3 main components: plasma membrane , cytoplasm & organelles 5 Plasma Membrane Surrounds & gives cell form, is selectively permeable Formed by a double layer of phospholipids Which restricts passage of polar compounds (e.g. water, ions) 6 7 Lipid bilayer ICF (water) ECF (water) Polar heads (hydrophilic) Nonpolar tails (hydrophobic) Polar heads (hydrophilic) Plasma Membrane continued Proteins customize membranes Provide structural support Serve as transporters, enzymes, receptors & identity markers 8
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3 Plasma Membrane continued Carbohydrates in form of glycoproteins & glycolipids are part of outer surface Impart negative charge to surface, assist in joining adjacent cells, etc. 9 Bulk Transport Is way cells move large molecules & particles across plasma membrane Extracellular material can be brought into the cell by (see chapter 3): phagocytosis (multicellular particles engulfed by cell), pinocytosis (cell internalizes fluid), and receptor-mediated endocytosis . 10 Bulk Transport Some cells use phagocytosis to take in particulate matter E.g. white blood cells & macrophages Also known as “cell eating” 11 12 White blood cell Pseudopod Bacterium Phagocytic vesicle Lysosome Phagocytosis
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4 Bulk Transport Cells use endocytosis to take in large compounds or nutrients Membrane invaginates to take in a vesicle of extracellular substance Pinocytosis is non-specific intake Also known as “cell drinking” 13 Bulk Transport Receptor-mediated endocytosis uses receptors to take in specific compounds Including some viruses 14 1. plasma membrane pit forming 2. membrane pouching inward 3. vesicle forming 4.vesicle inside cell 15 Particular protein Nucleus of cell Surface receptor site Endocytotic pouch Endocytotic vesicle Receptor-mediated endocytosis Bulk Transport Cells use exocytosis to export products into the extracellular fluid Via secretory vesicles 16
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5 17 Secretory vesicle Nucleus of cell Fusion of secretory vesicle with plasma membrane Secretion of vesicle contents (exocytosis) Surface Specializations Some epithelial cells have cilia projecting from surface Hair-like structures that beat in unison E.g. cilia lining respiratory & reproductive tracts 18 Surface Specializations Some epithelial cells have microvilli on surface to increase surface area for absorption Fingerlike structures to expand surface area (ex.
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