lec3-2010 - IS 2300 Week 3 - Attention This week Class...

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Unformatted text preview: IS 2300 Week 3 - Attention This week Class project Attention Czerwinski, M., Horvitz, E. & Wilhite, S. (2004). A Diary Study of Task Switching and Interruptions. In Proceedings of ACM Human Factors in Computing Systems CHI 2004, p. 175-182. Next Week Cell Phones and Driving Univ of Utah Study Carnegie Mellon Study Next week University of Utah Studies: Strayer, D., Drews, F., Albert, R. & Johnston, W. (2001). Does cell phone conversation impair driving performance? Psychological Science , 12 , 462-466 Strayer, D. L., Drews, F. A., & Crouch, D. J.(2006). A comparison of the cell phone driver and the drunk driver. Human Factors, 48, 381-391. CNN Report at http://www.cnn.com/2001/US/08/16/cell.phone.driving/index.html Carnegie Mellon Study: Just, MA, et al (2001). Interdependence of nonoverlapping cortical systems in dual cognitive tasks. NeuroImage, 14, 417426. Pittsburgh Post-Gazette Report at http://www.post-gazette.com/regionstate / 20010727cellphones0727p2.asp ALSO: Review Chapter 1 on Neuro techniques Attention What is meant by attention? Talk about Attending to a lecture (concentration) Attending to a particular conversation in a crowded room (selection) Attending to only so many things at one time (limits in capacity) Driving without paying attention to all the details (automaticity) Initial Observations on Attention Perceptual attention An unlimited amount of information available Partial report of George Sperling shows unlimited capacity of the visual sensory store (iconic memory) Capacity and Attention Bottleneck theories Capacity theories Daniel Kahneman Resources/Attention Some limited capacity Unitary: task always depletes common pool by a constant amount Multiple: task depletes pools of resources to varying degrees Mixed: cost of sharing even for highly dissimilar resources Chris Wickens task sharing model See sample tests on Medins website 9. Kahnemans (1973) capacity theory of attention states that A. two tasks will be difficult to perform at the same time if they both draw significantly from the same limited pool of resources. B. multiple tasks that do not require much cognitive effort should not interfere with each other. C. both A and B D. none of the above 10. A person finds that it is easy to do Tasks X and Y at the same time, but difficult to do Tasks X and Z at the same time. Which explanation is most plausible? A. Tasks X and Z do not draw from the same resource pools. B. Tasks Y and Z draw from the same resource pools. C. Task X is a well-practiced, automatic task. D. Task Z is not a well-practiced, automatic task. See sample tests on Medins website 9. Kahnemans (1973) capacity theory of attention states that A. two tasks will be difficult to perform at the same time if they both draw significantly from the same limited pool of resources....
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lec3-2010 - IS 2300 Week 3 - Attention This week Class...

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